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actments. The success of this aim will, of course, depend upon the intelligence and moral development of the citizens of a given community. The liberation of the individual—his increasing ability to secure the satisfactions consequent upon the free and orderly use of all his faculties—will proceed pari passu with his increasing dependence on the co-operative labors of his fellows. The processes of social differentiation go on hand in hand with the tendencies to social integration. As occupations become more diversified, the individual acquires greater skill in his special vocation; he produces a greater amount of wealth, and thus conduces more to the well-being of society, as well as, under a properly regulated system of labor, to his own personal well-being. Fewer hours of labor are requisite to insure a livelihood, as labor becomes differentiated and automatic; more time may be bestowed upon general culture, social intercourse, and the service of the commonwealth—upon the development, in short, of that fullness of life which constitutes the ideal of a perfect manhood.

In wisely serving himself, the individual is thus rendering a greater service to society; and this, in turn, inures to his own roundabout development. Egoism is thus purged of its excesses, and made to promote the general well-being. This, in turn, conduces to the highest individual prosperity and culture. In the proper equilibration of egoistic and altruistic motives in the government of conduct, all conflict between these motives ceases. In wisely serving his neighbor man renders the truest service to himself, and vice versa. Thus society integrates by a natural process of growth, obedient to laws which are operative in the evolution of all living things; and its ultimate form constitutes a real brotherhood of consent, instead of a militant organization consolidated by external coercion.



WHILE the debates in Congress which resulted in the passage of the act to regulate interstate commerce were in progress, and during the first few months of the enforcement and interpretation of that act, I contributed to The Popular Science Monthly a series of criticisms of that act and of its policy.

To me, and to thousands of others, the policy of the act seemed un-American and paternal; or, if not un-American and paternal, then a policy which could and should be applied to other than the transportation industry—to places of public amusement, or to professional pursuits, to the business of the physician or the law-