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have been collected and edited by Mr. John Vance Cheney, and are published, with much supplementary matter in the appendix, as Wood Notes Wild, by Lee & Shepard, Boston. The author warmly controverts the assertion of a modern English writer that there is no music in Nature, and in contradiction of it presents a transcript of the song of water dropping into a bucket, and the melody of a whirling clothes-rack. Following these, he gives his observations and transcriptions of the notes—some of them forming various melodies—of forty-one birds, beginning with the bluebird and robin, and closing with owls and the hen—all of which, he avers, contain the essential elements of true music. In the appendix, the editor presents all that he has been able to find, by citation or reference, that has been said by other authors on the music of birds, and has combined much valuable information on the subject.

The Financial History of Massachusetts, from the Organization of the Massachusetts Bay Company to the American Revolution, is a volume of the Columbia College Series of Studies in History, Economics, and Law, by Charles A. Douglas. It is presented as a necessary antecedent to an intelligent investigation of the financial phenomena of the later period of the history of the State, which are regarded as far more complex, as well as fuller of interest, than those embraced within the scope of the present essay. In his treatment the author has given space to the exposition of administrative features, rather than to numerical statements—very properly, we think, in view of the close relation of such features to fundamental principles, and of the fragmentary and unsystematic character of the financial records. We are sorry to observe the author apologizing for involved style in some parts of his work. With a language so capable of giving clear and simple expression to every thought as the English, we can recognize no sufficient excuse in a careful work for the want of it.

Opposite views of the money question are taken in two pamphlets that are before us—Two Essays in Economics, by John Borden (S. A. Maxwell & Co., Chicago), and a lecture by Alfred B. Westrup on Citizens' Money (The Mutual Bank Propaganda, Chicago). Mr. Borden's essays are on Wealth and American Money, and are well-reasoned and well-tempered presentations of the sound financial view that the circulation must have a basis of real value. Wealth is defined, its different kinds are distinguished, false definitions of it are exposed, and it is considered with reference to its sum and its owners. In American Money are discussed the standard, tokens, the medium of exchange, the volume of the currency, money as a store of wealth, and paper money. In his lecture on Citizens' Money, Mr. Westrup insists that sufficient volume and facilities must be provided to enable all wealth to be represented by money; that this representative should be loaned at cost; that absolute security must be given to the holder of paper money; and that the present system of control and restriction of the currency by Government is wrong.


Abbott, Lyman. The Evolution of Christianity. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Pp. 358. $1.25.

American Society of Naturalists. Report on Science Teaching in the Schools. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill. Pp. 14.

Arizona, University of, Tucson. Bulletin of School of Mines, No. 2. Pp. 10.

Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Publications. Vol. III, No. 15. Pp. 72.

Baker, Charles. Patti Waltz. Tyrolienne. New York: Baker & Helmick. Pp. 3. 40 cents.

Beardmore, W. Lee. The Drainage of Habitable Buildings. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 89. $1.50.

Benedict, W. R., Cincinnati. Psychological Table. Chart.

Bernard, Henry Mayness. The Apodidæ: A Morphological Study. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 316. $2.

Booth, Charles. Pauperism and the Endowment of Old Age. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 355. $1.25.

Boston Public Schools. Report for 1891. Pp. 74.

Brinton, D. G. Anthropology as a Science and as a Branch of University Education. Studies in South American Native Languages. Philadelphia: McCalla & Co. Pp. 88.

Carlyle, Thomas, The Last Words of. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 383. $1.75.

Cathcart, George R. Cathcart's Literary Reader. New York: American Book Co. Pp. 541. $1.15.

Chicago Manual Training School. Catalogue, 1891-'92. Pp. 32.

Churchill, Lord Randolph S. Men, Mines, and Animals in South Africa. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 937, with Map. $5.

Conn, Dr. H. W., Middletown, Conn. Some Uses of Bacteria. Pp. 28.

Cowperthwait, J. Howard. Money, Silver, and Finance. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 242. $1.25.

Cushing, Frank H. A Zuñi Folk-tale of the Underworld. Pp. 18.

Dawson, G. M. Notes on the Shuswap People of British Columbia. Pp. 44, with Plate.