Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 42.djvu/153

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smooth surface. These two types may be considered common all over the world. The third type is the grooved hammer, of the use and distribution of which little is known. It was evidently intended for hafting, and that would interfere with its use as a rubber. All three types vary greatly in dimensions, but, as a rule, the first two are of a size suitable for hand-use for hammering and for rubbing. With these hammers the author believes that other implements were dressed by pecking, and superficial effects were produced which have not been otherwise accounted for, or even remarked. He further goes on to maintain that they had a much more extensive use than has been contemplated, and that many of the Egyptian and the ancient Greek works of art were prepared and dressed with them.

Curious Feature of the Coal-borings at Manchester, England.—The Manchester coalfield, England, according to an article in Chambers's Journal, is a seat of great activity and advancement. Difficulties have been encountered and overcome there, and depths have been reached, which are not thought of elsewhere in the kingdom. The Ashton Moss mine lies at a depth of about a thousand yards below the surface. It presents the curious phenomenon of the boring passing down from one seam of coal to another one four hundred yards geologically higher. This is occasioned by the occurrence of a reversed fault, by which the seams are thrown into this curious position relative to one another. The natural temperature at the bottom of the mine, 84° Fahr., is much lower than the theoretical temperature calculated upon by the Royal Coal Commission. The barometer stands three inches higher than at the surface.

The "Typical American" Diet.—Noticing and criticising the paper of N. E. Yorke Davies, in the July number of the Monthly, on The Proper Diet for Hot Weather, the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal says that "the 'typical American' takes an early breakfast, when he indulges freely in fruit, and never omits a first course of oatmeal and milk, cracked wheat, or hominy; this is followed by dry toast or buttered toast, an egg and a little cold meat or fresh fish, and a cup of coffee sweetened with sugar, not saccharine, which is reserved for the diabetic. He would be glad of cream if it can be obtained. His dinner is the principal meal, and is always taken near the middle of the day. This is composed of soup, three or four ounces of broiled fish, roast meat, or fowl, from four to six ounces of green vegetables (green peas, green beans, stewed turnips, onions, squash), four ounces of potatoes with meat gravy, with pickles and jelly ad lib. The last course, the apple, custard, or berry pie of our forefathers, doubtless does not deserve all the abuse which has been heaped upon it by our English cousins, especially when it is light, without too much shortening, and with a well-cooked bottom crust. The last meal, the supper, is taken rather early (as soon as six o'clock), and is designed to be a plain, light, substantial meal of bread and butter or tea-rolls, a little stewed fruit for relish, and one or two cups of tea. The 'average American' seldom eats lunches."


Of the value of anthropological research, in one direction at least, Dr. Alexander Macalister says that if we should ever rise to the possession of a true appreciation of the influences which have affected mankind in the past, with such a knowledge we should be able to advance in that practical branch of anthropology, the science of education, and to make progress in sociology, a study which does for the community what the science of education does for the individual.

Among the results of the recent earthquake in Japan, as described by Prof. Milne at the meeting of the British Association, were the depression of a valley of about nineteen feet and for a distance of thirty miles, thus forming a great geological fault, and the curving of a railway line running along an embankment and bridge in the path of the earthquake.

The influence of food and surroundings on color was illustrated in a paper at the British Association by Mr. E. B. Poulton, on the colors of lepidopterous larvæ. Several members of a large brood of caterpillars of the pepper moth were exhibited which had been reared under different conditions. Those which had been confined among green leaves and twigs became green; those which had had black and brown twigs mingled with their food were brown or black; while others which had been reared among spills of white paper had made a pathetic attempt to imitate