Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 42.djvu/580

This page has been validated.

ments in various materials, and of the carvings on horn, bone, and wood, which testify to the artistic ability of the man of the stone age. The next chapter is devoted mostly to dwellings, and in it we find described the earth holes of France and South America, the natural caves used as abodes, especially in France, the lake stations of Switzerland, the crannoges of Ireland, the burgs of Scotland, the nurhags of Sardinia, the talayoti of the Balearic Isles, and the castelheri of Istria. Megalithic monuments are treated with no less fullness than are the dwellings, and the same may be said in regard to fortifications. There is also a brief summary of Dr. Schliemann's discoveries on the site of Troy. A somewhat miscellaneous chapter deals with industry, commerce, social organizations, fights, wounds, and trepanation; and the volume ends quite appropriately with tombs. One hundred and thirteen figures illustrate the text.

Longmans' Object-lessons. By David Salmon. Revised and adapted to American Schools by John F. Woodhull. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 238. Price, $1.

These lessons are intended for children in infant or primary schools, and full notes are given for a course which may extend through four or five years. Plants, animals, and the common properties of substances are studied at first; later on, the general principles of chemistry, physics, and botany are considered. The first part of the work is devoted to hints for teachers, and a strong plea is made for early training. Many children enter upon life ill equipped, since their school education ends before the definite study of science begins.

The method of the author is excellent, but a false idea is conveyed by illustrating modes of manufacture which have been superseded, as that in the making of pins.

The book is fully illustrated, and provides blank notes for teachers and an index.

The Story of Kaspar Hauser. By Elizabeth E. Evans. London: Swan, Sonnenschein & Co. Pp. 188. Price, $1.75.

The pathetic tale in this volume will appear entirely credible to those who read it here for the first time. Even in these days of quick intelligence and watchful societies children are abducted, secreted, and finally lost to their friends, so that at the outset it is not improbable that such a scheme should have been effectual in past times with the heir to a royal house. The preponderance of proof is that Kaspar Hauser was indeed the Prince of Baden. Supposing that a group of such diverse characteristics as the city officials, a scholarly professor, and noted criminal lawyer could be easily deceived, the autopsy performed in another city showed their observations to be well founded. The abnormal flatness of knee-line, the enlarged liver, and undeveloped brain were unimpeachable witnesses. The portrait given ought also to furnish some evidence if it bears a marked family resemblance. The literature that has grown up on this subject is quite extensive. A list of forty-five books and pamphlets is appended for those who wish to consult the original testimony.

Nature Study. By Wilbur S. Jackman. Second edition, revised. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 448.

The teacher of elementary science in the common school has not only his class to instruct in the study of Nature, but probably himself; and this volume is designed to guide him in this task of manifold difficulty. An acquaintance with scientific fact and principle can be gleaned from books, but the method, which is generally an untrodden way for him, must be learned by individual effort, and it is advised that he should begin and work with his pupils. The plan of the book is altogether novel. An outline of subject matter for a year's course of lessons is given; this is divided into twelve sections corresponding to the months. In each of these an effort is made to study the special phenomena of the season, chiefly by practical work. Although no illustrations are furnished, explicit directions are given for performing experiments, collecting specimens, and keeping mineralogical and meteorological records, charts for which are also published separately. Topics are indicated by questions, but it is not intended that the teacher shall use these except as suggestions. Class work can be varied by drawing, painting, modeling, and the making of apparatus.

The list of sciences entered upon is long. A weekly lesson is prescribed in zoology and