The Physiology of Pleasure—appeared when he was only twenty-two years of age. It has been published and republished, translated and retranslated, and, although forty years have passed since its appearance, it is still issued in new editions in Italy. In 1854 Dr. Mantegazza removed to South America, and for four years practiced medicine at Buenos Ayres and Entrerios in the Argentine Republic and also in Paraguay. Returning to Italy in 1858, he practiced medicine and surgery in the military hospital during the war of 1859. In 1860 he secured, by competitive examination, the chair of General Pathology at the University of Pavia, and established in connection with that institution the first laboratory in experimental pathology, from which such eminent physiologists as Bizzazzero and Golgi have gone forth. In 1870 he removed to Florence to take the first chair of Anthropology. Here he has remained, constantly busying himself in every way that could extend the science to which he is so entirely devoted. Here he has founded the National Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology, the Italian Society of Anthropology, and the journal Archivio per l'Antropologia e la Etnologia. What Broca was to Paris and to France, Mantegazza is to Italy. The parallel is a strong one, for not only is Mantegazza, like Broca, a leader in anthropological science, but he is a leader of the most liberal portion of the workers in that field.
Of all sciences anthropology is the one which most keeps a man in touch with men and affairs. Every one knows the slap that the German emperor gave to Virchow recently at Berlin, The occasion was the birthday celebration of the two great scientists—Helmholtz the physicist, and Virchow the anthropologist. His Majesty congratulated Helmholtz upon having devoted himself so closely to his science that he had never meddled in political matters. It is easy for the physicist to do so. But how can a man who studies mankind hold himself aloof from human interests? Mantegazza has long been in public life. In 1845 he was sent from Monza as representative and was re-elected four times; while in 1876 he was elected senator of the kingdom of Italy. He has never been a political leader, but has always been clearly identified with the Liberal party.
Mantegazza's writings are exceedingly numerous and varied. He has written anthropological memoirs, works on medicine, volumes of travel, monographs upon special races, biographical studies, and romances. Among his more important anthropological works are Physiology of Pleasure, Physiology of Pain, Physiology of Love, Physiology of Hate, Love in Humanity, Hygiene of Love, and Physiognomy and Expression. All these have been translated into the leading languages of Europe and have exerted an immense influence. One or other of his books have