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been so unfulfilled as to have imperiled their very existence. New York State makes her normal-school diplomas valid as life certificates, pays one half the railway fares of State appointees, and furnishes text-books free to all. Pupils from other States were formerly admitted free, but now pay a tuition of forty dollars per year. In 1892 the two years' course was dropped, and at present the State Normal Schools have three courses—an English course of three years, and classical and scientific courses of four years.

In 1890 the Oswego school decided to discontinue instruction in the ancient and modern languages "when the pupils already entered for these subjects shall have finished their courses"; but diplomas for the classical and scientific courses will be given to students who possess the required knowledge. This departure was made because Dr. Sheldon became convinced that more could be accomplished for the public schools by concentrating the energy, time, and money required for these linguistic studies on advanced academic and professional work on the lines of the English course. In lieu of these languages, the Oswego school now offers three one-year post-graduate courses:—advanced instruction in natural science, psychology, history, and English, and practice teaching in higher English and science subjects; kindergarten training, and special training for primary teaching; and preparation of teachers for teaching in training schools. For the kindergarten work a diploma is given: for each of the other courses a certificate testifying to the extra work and qualifications.

To keep pace with these various changes, the faculty of the school has been increased from six to fifteen persons; the annual appropriation raised from $3,000 to $21,000; and in 1879 a new building was provided by the State at a cost of $56,000. This building (see cut) stands on the summit of a ridge rising westward from the Oswego River. It forms three sides of an oblong, with a south front one hundred and ninety feet, an east front one hundred and thirty-five feet, and a west front one hundred and twenty-two feet. In its construction, exterior form and ornament were sacrificed for interior convenience and furnishing. It gives more recitation room and laboratory space, and is better equipped with appliances for the best methods of study and professional training, than some normal-school buildings of twice its cost. Arrangements for heat, light, and ventilation are excellent. On the first floor are the general offices and waiting rooms, the kindergarten and practice school; on the second, the assembly hall, library, reading room, and general recitation rooms; on the third, literary society rooms, scientific laboratories, and lecture room; and on the fourth, an art room.

The kindergarten is domiciled in the east end of the front, in a charming room, whose adornments and work make a fairyland