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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 44.djvu/702

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

ern hemisphere) that "one of the best criterions between the effects produced by the passage of glaciers and of icebergs is boss or dome-shaped rocks."

3. Striated, grooved, and fluted rocks, though closely connected with the preceding, form a distinct kind of evidence of the greatest value. Most of the bosses of rock just described have been exposed to the action of the atmosphere, perhaps since the ice left them, and have thus become more or less roughened or even disintegrated; but where the rocks have been protected by a covering of drift, or even of turf, and have been recently exposed, they often exhibit numerous parallel striæ, varying from the finest scratches to deep furrows a foot or more in diameter. Fine examples are to be seen near the lakes of Llanberis, and they occur more or less frequently in every glaciated country. Perhaps none of the effects of ice so clearly demonstrate the action of glaciers as opposed to that of icebergs, owing to the general constancy of the direction of the striæ, and the long distances they may be traced up and down slopes, with a steadiness of motion and evenness of cutting power which no floating mass could possibly exert. Sir A. Geikie tells us that in Gareloch, Bute, and Canty re the striations on the rocks run up and over the ridges, and are as clearly shown on the hill tops as in the valleys. Mr. D. Mackintosh states (in his paper on the Ice-sheet of the Lake District and of North Wales) that in the valley above Windermere the striæ cross Rydal Fell, Loughrigg Fell, and Orrest Head, ascending and descending their slopes, often obliquely. But it is in the United States that the most remarkable rock-groovings are to be found, extending over a large portion of the northeastern States. In his report on The Rock-scorings of the Great Ice Invasions Mr. T. C. Chamberlin gives many fine illustrations, from photographs, showing striæ and grooves along sloping, curved, or vertical surfaces, the striæ following the changes of curve, so that the grinding material must have been slowly forced into close contact with the irregular surface. Of one of these examples Mr. Chamberlin says:

The climax of adaptability is reached in the striation of warped and twisted surfaces, and of tortuous valleys. One of the most remarkable known instances of this within the limits of photographic illustration is furnished by the great glacial grooves at Kelly's Island (Fig, 17). These exhibit not only the pliancy of the ice, but at the same time its strong hold upon the armature with which it did its work of abrasion, grooving, and striation. For, while these grooves can scarcely be supposed to have been originated de novo by the gouging action of the ice, they are, nevertheless, plowed with deep furrows, the symmetry, continuity, and peculiar form of some of which are only intelligible on the supposition that they were cut by a single graving tool, held with sufficient tenacity by the ice to execute by a single movement a deep, sharply defined groove. There is, perhaps, no finer illustration of the pliancy with which the ice yielded to its encompassing