Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 44.djvu/719

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the steam engine in its relation to electricity. There are four appendices on tests of irons, ampere turn tables, determination of sizes of wire for armatures and field coils, and on the calculation of belting.

Two German Giants: Frederick the Great and Bismarck. By John Lord, D. D., LL. D. New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert, 1894. Pp. 173.

This is a brief account of the early years of these statesmen, followed by a consideration, more philosophical than historical, of their careers. Frederick the Great as the founder, and Bismarck as the builder, of the German Empire, are the aspects in which they appear, and while the author greatly admires their wonderful statesmanship and perseverance under the most overwhelming difficulties, he finds them both, and more especially Frederick, wanting in moral perception. He explains this by their absorbing ambition and love of country which led them to adopt that most dangerous of mottoes, that the end justifies the means. A character sketch of Bismarck by Bayard Taylor, written in 1887, is given, and also Bismarck's great speech on the enlargement of the German army in 1888. The book contains portraits of both Frederick and Bismarck.

Elementary Paleontology for Geological Students. By Henry Woods, B. A., F. G. S. New York: Macmillan & Co., 1893. Pp. 222.

This little book, which gives an elementary account of invertebrate paleontology, is one of a valuable series, the Cambridge Natural Science Manuals, which are edited by A. E. Shipley, M. A. The author has devoted most of his space to the treatment of those groups of fossil animals which are especially useful to the geologist, and but briefly considered those of interest mainly to the zoölogist. The author thus describes his method of treating the subject: "My plan has been to give, in each group, first an account of its general zoölogical features with a full description of the hard parts; secondly, the classification and characters of those genera which are important geologically; and, thirdly, a sketch of the present and past distribution of the group." For the use of those who wish to obtain a more extended knowledge of the subject, there is appended a list of some of the more important and easily accessible works on paleontology.

American Types of Animal Life. By St. George Mivart, F. R. S. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. Illustrated. Pp. 374. Price, $2.

A series of sketches of the various groups of animals which are either peculiar to America or have their most typical representatives here. It is intended to serve as an introduction to zoölogy, more particularly to the vertebrata, and more especially the mammalia. The first animals considered are the monkeys, to which thirty-five pages, containing several pictures, are devoted. The rarer and more striking forms are especially dealt with, and several amusing and instructive anecdotes related. Next comes the opossum, which is of peculiar interest to us, as it is a form of marsupial found only in America. It has been much studied by the zoölogist and geologist, because of its isolation from other marsupials, and is considered an important link in the evidence which connects the South American continent with Australia, as well as one of the many things indicating a close relationship between North America and the Europe of Tertiary times.

The turkey forms the subject of the third essay. He is so peculiarly an American institution, and, so far as we know, always has been, that, aside from his value as an edible, he deserves careful consideration. That this was appreciated so far back as Revolutionary times is shown by the fact that he was proposed as the national symbol by Franklin. The following extract is interesting in relation to the turkey's identification with holiday occasions:

"In 1666 twelve of these birds were presented to the French king Charles IX; and the first record of its appearance at a state banquet was at his wedding four year's later. Soon after that it seems to have become common in England, and already to have found its place as a family dish at Christmas dinners."

The next twenty-five pages are about the bullfrog and his relations. The author speaks of him as follows: "The frog has special claims to our gratitude and commiseration on account of all it has done and