ical press in 1857, and wrote many papers and editorial articles for several journals; and from 1867 to 1871 edited the Medical Gazette. As editor he "labored industriously to raise the standard of medical morals and of scientific essays. His reviews of literary and scientific works are so many pleas for thoroughness in research, accuracy in statement, simplicity in diction, and good taste in composition. . . . His dislike of shams and of irrational methods is exhibited throughout his essays, both medical and literary, in verse and in prose." With his other qualities he had a keen wit, which was used to good effect in his writings, and in drawings and models satirizing follies, abuses, exaggeration in fashions, and hygienic improprieties. Retiring from the editorship of the Medical Gazette in 1871, he settled for practice in New Brighton, Staten Island, till 1889, when he removed to New York city. He was a member of the Council of the New York State Medical Association, and for three years edited its transactions. His most important work was performed in sanitary science. Dr. Gouley names thirty-seven editorial articles on public health, which he published while editor of the Medical Gazette. He wrote for the World a series of articles—the Ollapod Papers—on hygiene, conveying useful information respecting the prevention of disease and the general care of the person, which were widely read. During. his residence in New Brighton he gave a series of free popular lectures on hygiene. His address on the Philosophy of Health before the Alumni Association of the University Medical College of New York, and those on Public Health before the New York State Medical Association in 1885, and the American Medical Association in 1890 were of high character. In 1884 he became Secretary of the New York State Board of Health, succeeding Dr. Elisha Harris, deceased. In this position he was much consulted with reference to health laws and general sanitation. While in this office he delivered an acceptable course of lectures on hygiene at the Albany Medical College; and he gave courses on the same subject at the Mott Memorial Hall in 1890, and at the New York College of Veterinary Surgeons in 1891. Dr. Thudicum, of London, speaks of his later writings, with which only he is acquainted, as "full of original observations, keen application of the most progressive science, and conclusions of the greatest practical value."
Cheating Ancestors and Gods.—A curious industry in some of the provinces of China is the manufacture of mock money for offering to the dead. Formerly sham paper money was burned, but now mock dollars are used. They are only half the size of real dollars, but the dead are supposed not to know the difference; and, moreover, there is no more harm in cheating the dead than there is in cheating the living. To make them, tin, hammered out till it is not thicker than the thickest paper, is punched to the size of half dollars and pasted on disks of cardboard. A boy then takes the pieces, and with two dies, one representing the one side and the other the reverse, hammers impressions of dollars upon them, and the money is ready for use. Some districts of the Anhui province having been ravaged by an epidemic, so that in many places the people were not able to attend to the harvesting of the crops, an attempt was made to deceive the gods by playing at NewYear's day. Every preparation—burning fire-crackers and pasting happy sentences in red paper on the doors, and the rest—was made for celebrating the bogus New Year. The object was to make the god of sickness think he had made a mistake in the seasons, and had erred in bringing an epidemic on the people at a time when, in the course of Nature, no epidemic should appear. As any action contrary to Nature done by the gods is liable to punishment by the King of Heaven, the actors in this farce thought that the god of sickness would gather his evil spirits back to him for fear of the displeasure of his superior divinity. This child's play received the permission and co-operation of the local authorities.
The Future of Geographical Exploration.—In his recent annual address as President of the Royal Geographical Society, Mr. Clements R. Markham said that the work of geographical discovery during living memory had proceeded with such rapidity that many had been half inclined to think that there was little left to be done. There were still wide tracts, however, in all the great divisions