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LITERARY NOTICES.

politicians as well as the faulty results of our "primary elections." An antagonist worthy of the author's steel might be the Hon. W. E. Gladstone, who declares the "Constitution" in question to be the greatest "fiat" that ever issued from the hands of men. We ourselves have somehow the impression that unscrupulous politicians and packed primaries exist in spite of the Constitution. Nevertheless, the volume before us tends to modify the weight that Americans customarily attach to their method of dealing with national shortcomings and political abuses. Further, the author places us en rapport with the monarchical governments of Europe, both ancient and modern, and strenuously argues in favor of similar policies—or at least one such institution being adopted in the United States. Notwithstanding the trenchant analysis applied, as long ago as and by Lord Bacon, to the faultiness—under specified conditions—of the syllogistic argument, and its invalidity as demonstrated by the late John Stuart Mill; still, Mr. Marcotte very quietly settles the "divine right of monarchy" as follows: "The form of government which best administers justice is of divine right; monarchy is that which best administers justice; therefore, monarchy is of divine right." Evidently our author cares very little or nothing for previous questions.

But the foregoing sample is the very worst feature of a work the contents of which introduce us to such excellent matter as the story of Democracy, the Greek Republics, Media and Persia, the Athenian Commonwealth, the Roman Empire, the Great American Republic, the Origin of the American People, etc. In a second edition of this work the author's genuine good nature will doubtless incline him to deprecate pessimism and anticipate an epoch on this continent when impartiality will have become a necessity and human justice as natural as the law of gravitation.

Secularism: Its Progress and Morals. By John M. Bonham. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 396. Price, $1.75.

A work that forces reflection of an ethical nature will inevitably fill an exalted niche within the radius of scientific activity. Such a volume lies before us and invites the reader's thoughtful consideration for many good reasons. The philosophy underlying the inferences deduced in Secularism—will as far as one can judge—have a twofold effect. Such as may deem it a duty to oppose the author will indubitably have to reconsider their own position, and those who agree with him, will doubtless discover new data wherewith to augment their polemical outfit.

The scope of the question taken up by Mr. Bonham is far from limited by even the copiousness of his book, though the comprehensiveness of the author's design is apparent throughout. The main initial purport of the argument, as a whole, is to examine minutely the relative force of influences bearing upon beliefs theological, in the first place through industrial results, and in the second by such surroundings as are traceable to the intellectual field of view. The next point of import rendered lucid by the author's method of reasoning is the fact that the masses, with but few exceptions, are disinclined to philosophical abstractions, and that those influences which go farthest to build up their ethical natures are discoverable in their occupations and the deductions supplied from inductions gathered through the physical phenomena affecting their daily lives. This would be putting the matter with unwarrantable brevity were we unable or disinclined to further note the exhaustiveness of this engaging book. Besides the superiority of relative truth over the presumptions of supermental dicta being succinctly treated, the history of the decline of theologic anathema against ascertained knowledge finds a place. The true value of authority per se is justly weighed, and the evolution and dissolution of things once sacred are so touched as to evidence a decided mastery over historical detail. The chapters on Ethics are lengthy and full to diffuseness in their estimate of the comparative values of the scientific and theologic theories affecting conduct, together with the impersonal entities that frequently control ethics. There is nothing perfunctory—no uncertainty of tone in the treatment of secular as contrasted with ecclesiastical morality. Idealism, realism, intuition, justice, the laws of Nature, and the assumptions that have signally failed to explain ultimate causes, all receive their full quota of consideration.