Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 45.djvu/329

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caused a differentiation in the ranks of producers, forming the elements distinguished as capital and labor, the force of competition upon the producers has tended not only to reduce the profits of capital but the wages of labor. As capitalists have combined to protect their profits from the encroachment of competition, so have laborers combined to protect their wages from the encroachment of other laborers, the encroachment of competition acting through the capitalists, and the encroachment of the capitalists direct. And as the action of these labor organizations throughout the industrial field tends to obtain and preserve to the workingman a share of the benefit derived from the sale of products in proportion to the value of the part in the production of which his efforts have contributed, they fulfill an important function in the attainment and maintenance of that equitable relation between the consumer and producer which constitutes industrial equilibrium.

As the argument from every point of view goes to prove that industrial combinations are the products of natural forces ministering eventually to the highest good of the individuals of a community, of the community as a whole, and to community and community in domestic and international relationship alike, lawmakers should have care that in the effort to rid the tree of poisonous growth they do not interfere with the current of the life-giving sap. The object of legal enactment should be the maintenance of justice between man and man, without hampering beneficent activity that will be driven into proper channels by the same forces that give it existence.


THE title above might suggest a forest that has been shot through by the light of day, or some delightful dell where the rays of the sun make every spot enchanting. Quite otherwise, the lines to follow deal with the printing of pictures of sections of woods by means of the direct sunlight, and some of the points of structure thus brought to view.

If any object through which the light passes unequally in its various parts be brought close against a sensitized paper used by photographers in printing pictures from their negatives, it is evident that an impression will be produced. This print will be a negative, or, in other words, the dark parts in the subject will be light and the light parts dark. For example, the section of papaw wood shown in Fig. 1 is a negative, while in Fig. 3 is the