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LITERARY NOTICES.

welfare of man. The "vast array of primordial atoms" as well as the beginning of life upon the earth demand the exertion of creative power; this, it is claimed, or even subsequent creative acts, are not in conflict with the process of evolution.

In the remaining lectures the author does not enter upon a comparative study of religions, but confines himself to the claims of Christianity.

Whatever may be said in favor of the theistic arguments contained in the first part of the book can scarcely be maintained in regard to these deductions, wherein it is urged that the Christian doctrine of the origin of man, his fall from a state of innocence, the dogma of the Trinity, and the indwelling of the Spirit "satisfy certain aspirations of natural theology."

The Dawn of Astronomy. By J. Norman Lockyer, F. R. S., etc. New York and London: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 432. Price, $5.

It would be impossible to determine whether the heavenly bodies aroused the greater wonder in the ancients, who could know but little of their real nature, or in us, who have learned something of their immense sizes, distances from the earth, and velocities of motion. That the ancients were profoundly impressed by them, and were attentive observers of their phenomena, is being made more and more evident by the advance of arch├Žological research. While in Greece, some four years ago, Prof. Lockyer became interested in determining the orientation of some of the Athenian temples. He found reason to believe that these structures were oriented upon an astronomical basis, and, carrying the investigation back to the works of the ancient Egyptians, discovered the abundant evidence in support of his supposition which IS embodied in the handsome volume before us. The great temple of Amen-Ra at Karnak faces the sunset at the time of the summer solstice. A stone avenue stretches through the axis of the temple for five hundred yards, and throughout all the halls of the building nothing was allowed to obstruct the view through this avenue toward the point where the sim dropped below the horizon on the longest day of the year. Other temples elsewhere were oriented toward the same point. Still others appear to have been oriented with reference to stars. Ruins of old temples have been found and beside them a less ancient structure with an axis pointing in a somewhat different direction. Inasmuch as stars change their declinations about a degree in three hundred years, this circumstance of a changed axis in the new temple strongly supports the theory of stellar orientation. Many similar facts are given by Prof. Lockyer, and in connection with them he sets forth the astronomical basis of the Egyptian pantheon, describes the Egyptian calendar, and constructs, from the various monuments, inscriptions, and other available material, a chronicle of the succession of moon cult to sun cult, and of the mingling of these together and with various star cults, as successive waves of population inundated the valley of the Nile. The volume is copiously illustrated with views of temples and other monuments, figures of gods, diagrams, etc.

Sewage Disposal in the United States. By George W. Rafter, M. Am. Soc. C. E., and M. N. Baker, Ph. B. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co. Pp. 598. Price, $6.

This substantial volume embodies a comprehensive survey of the operations for the disposal of sewage that have been carried on in the United States. The conditions and needs governing sewage disposal in this country being somewhat different from those existing abroad, the authors believe that the information which they have gathered will be of peculiar benefit to American sanitary officials and engineers. The work is divided into two parts, the former of which is a discussion of principles, while the latter consists of descriptions of works. The practice of discharging sewage into fresh-water streams and lakes from which the water supplies of towns are taken has given rise to many of the most perplexing problems that sanitary engineers have had. to deal with. Accordingly, the pollution of streams by sewage and manufacturers' waste and the self-purification of streams thus polluted are among the earliest topics treated in this work, their legal as well as their scientific aspects being duly considered. The authors regard as not proved the assertion that polluted streams are rendered fit for drinking by natural agen-