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than in the peaceful nations of eastern Asia, essentially, no doubt, through the influence of Christianity, but largely through the development of the intellect, the disappearance of local prejudices, and the extension of human sympathy arising from the formation of great nations.

War still exists, but it has largely lost its function as a civilizer so far as enlightened nations are concerned. New and superior agencies are at work, and the injury done by war now looms far above any good it is likely to accomplish. Yet its active power in the spread of ideas continues, as in the notable instance I have already named—that of the rapid growth of abolition sentiment in the North during the American civil war. Possibly future useful effects in the same direction are still reserved for war, though it is to be hoped that man may henceforward rest content with the more desirable, if slower, results of peace.


IN the early part of the nineteenth century no citizen of New York was held in higher honor than was De Witt Clinton. Closely associated with Clinton in the leadership of the civic life of the day, but holding rigidly aloof from politics, was Dr. Hosack. "It was not infrequently remarked by our citizens," said his pupil and associate, John W. Francis, "that Clinton, Hosack, and Hobart were the tripod on which our city stood" Dr. Hosack was one of the founders of the New York Historical Society and its president from 1820 to 1828. He was also instrumental in founding an art society, was prominent in various scientific, literary, and humane undertakings, and, if his lead had been followed, New York would have to-day a botanic garden equal to any in a European metropolis.

David Hosack was the eldest of seven children, and was born August 31, 1769, in the house of his maternal grandfather, No. 44 Frankfort Street, New York. His father, Alexander Hosack, was a native of Morayshire (Elgin), Scotland. Having entered the British army, he was, at the age of twenty-one, serving as an officer in the artillery. He came to America in the force under General Sir Jeffrey Amherst, and was at the retaking of Louisburg. April 1, 1768, he married in New York Jane, daughter of Francis Arden. Her father's family came from England, while that of her mother belonged to that valuable contingent of Huguenot citizens which America received as a consequence of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

Young David, after receiving the ordinary elements of educa-