(Cope), which preyed upon the Western Hadrosaurus mirabilis (Leidy), and the Cretaceous Lælaps aquilunguis (Cope) of New Jersey, which preyed upon the Eastern Hadrosaurus Foulkii.
The lakes were infested with saurians which waded or swam, either or both. These types are represented only in the Jurassic. The Amphicœlius altus (Cope) was one of the largest of dinosaurs, which waded but never swam. It traveled mainly on the bottom of the lakes, raising its long neck and head occasionally to browse upon the overhanging branches, but never venturing ashore, where its weight would have caused a collapse of its structure. It doubtless could not swim. Amphibious and omnivorous, it ate everything edible it could reach or seize—a saurian in structure, everything in habits.
The Cretaceous ocean teemed with the serpentlike saurians which form the subject of this article. With the Mesozoic realm terminated the period of existence on earth of all the large saurians. In the following Cenozoic realm their successors appear in the diminutive saurians, snakes, and crocodiles.
|PEACE AS A FACTOR IN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL REFORM.|
ONLY by the application of an induction of Herbert Spencer, hardly less important and brilliant than his law of evolution, is it possible to introduce order into the complex and obscure phenomena of social and political life, and to distill from them trustworthy guidance for human conduct. In the light of the truth that out of the conflicts of war come one set of thoughts, feelings, and institutions, and out of the pursuits of peace come another set entirely different, the complexity and obscurity pass away. To the former we can trace with unerring certainty and precision the intolerance, brutality, dishonesty, and despotism that afflict the world; to the other, the enlightenment, forbearance, integrity, and freedom that give promise of a better day. But because of the flagrant disregard of this truth, not only by the ignorant and demagogic but by the literate and philanthropic, there is the gravest danger of a loss of the achievements of civilization and a restoration of the evils of barbarism.
The facts in support of the militant origin of barbarism and the pacific origin of civilization, like the facts in support of any other