English rule by the Duke of York's laws; the cities of New York and Albany received a large degree of autonomy; the creation of an elected county authority immediately followed the establishment of a legislature in 1691; and the powers of the legislature and the county supervisors were both increased at the expense of the central executive during the next one hundred years. This power seems to have reached its culmination in the Constitution of 1821, after which an isolated movement or two in the reverse direction may be perceived, the beginning of a tendency that became more evident about the middle of the century. Since then the return toward centralization has become more and more marked and rapid, and has now gained great force, the tendency toward State control and direct State administration being accompanied by a marked development of what may be called local centralization. Mr. Fairlie's paper is a careful study of the causes and influences that have contributed to this later movement.
The fifteenth volume of the Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science contains the minutes of the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth annual meetings, 1895, 1896, with eight of the papers read at the former meeting, and a considerably larger number of those read at the latter. In all, forty-two papers were read at the twenty-eighth annual meeting, and forty at the twenty-ninth. Measures have been taken by the academy for the publication of scientific monographs on the resources of the State.
The Bibliography of the Metals of the Platinum Group (platinum, palladium, iridium, rhodium, osmium, and ruthenium), 17481896, prepared by Prof. J. Lewis Howe, was recommended to the Smithsonian Institution for publication by the American Association's committee for indexing chemical literature. The compiler has tried to make the record of the chemistry of the metals in question as complete as possible, and it is believed that few references of importance are omitted.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins and Reports. Colorado State Agricultural College: No. 47. Colorado's Worst Insect Pests and their Remedies. By C. P. Gillette. Pp. 04, with plates.—Cornell University: No. 148. The Quince Curculio. By M. V. Slingerland. Pp. 24—Delaware College: No. 40. Soil Bacteria in their Relation to Agriculture. Part I. By F. D. Chester. Pp. 16.—Michigan State Agricultural College: No. 159. A Study of Normal Temperatures and the Tuberculin Test. By C. E. Marshall. Pp. 52; No. 160. Some Insects of the Year 1897. By R. R. Pettit. Pp. 40; No. 161. Fertilizer Analyses. By R. C. Kedzie. Pp. 20.—Michigan Bureau of Vital Statistics: June and July, 1898. Pp. 20 each.—Ohio: No. 93, The Home Mixing of Fertilizers. By C. E. Thome. Pp 20.—Purdue University: No. 70. The Relation of Water Supply to Animal Diseases. By A. W. Bilting. Pp. 12: No. 71. Corn Meal and Shorts and Skim Milk as Food (for Piss and Young Growing Chickens). By E. S. Flume and W. B. Anderson Pp. 10; Commercial Fertilizers. Special Bulletin. By II. A. Huston. Pp. 8.—United States Department of Agriculture: Flax Culture for Seed and Fiber in Europe and America. By C. R. Dodge. Pp. 80.
Andrews, Charles M. The Historical Development of Modern Europe. From the Congress of Vienna to the Present Time. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 467. $2.50.
Binet, Alfred; Ribot, Th.; and others, Editors. L'Année Psychologique (The Psychological Annual). Fourth year. Paris: Schleicher Frères. Pp. 849. 15 francs ($3).
Bulletins, Proceedings, Reports, etc. American Chemical Society: Journal, August, 1898. Pp. about 100. $5 a year.—Association of American Anatomists: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Session, December, 1897. Pp. 142.—Iowa, State University of: Laboratories of Natural History. Three papers. Pp. 84, with plates.—New York State College of Forestry, Cornell University: Announcement, 1898-'99. Pp 40—Ohio State University: College of Agriculture and Domestic Sciences, 1898-'99. Pp. 16.—United States Civil Service Commission: Fourteenth Annual Report, 1896-'97. Pp. 562.—University of Upsala, Sweden: Bulletin of the Geological Institution. Edited by Hj. Sjögnen. Vol. III. Part II. Pp. 144.—Wisconsin Geological and Agricultural Survey: On the Forestry Conditions of Northern Wisconsin. By Filibert Roth. Pp. 84, with map.
Collins, G. S., Editor. Selections from Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, with Notes. American Book Company. Pp. 163. 60 cents.
Davis, H. M. The Rutherfurd Photographic Measures of Sixty-five Stars near 61 Cygni; Parallaxes of 611 and 622 Cygni; Thirty-four Stars near "Bradley 3077." Pp. 132. Women Astronomers, Pp. 32.
Goldman, Henry. The Arithmachinist. A Practical Self-instructor in Mechanical Arithmetic. Chicago: The Office Men's Record Company. Pp. 128. 81.
Hayford, J. F. A Text-Book of Geodetic Astronomy. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 351, with plates.
Hoffman, F. S. The Sphere of Science. A Study of the Nature and Method of Scientific Investigation. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 168. $1.
Lyte, E. O. Elementary English. Pp. 160. 35 cents. Elements of Grammar and Composition. Pp. 224. 50 cents.
Peckham, G. W., and Elizabeth C. On the Instincts and Habits of the Solitary Wasps. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. Pp. 245, with plates.
Quinn, Rev. D. A. Stenotypy; or. Shorthand for the Typewriter. Providence, R. I.: American Book Exchange.
Reprints. Calvert, P. F.: The Adonate Genus Macrotherais and its Allies. (Boston Society of Natural History.) Pp. 32, with plates.—Herman, Nathan, M. D.: Hypnotism in General Practice. (Maryland Medical Journal.) Pp. 5.—Hyatt, Al-