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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 54.djvu/356

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cently been proved beyond all question.[1] Thus does the European Mediterranean type shade off in head form, as in complexion also, into the primitive anthropological type of the negro. The situation being thus clearly defined, it should be relatively easy to trace our modern Jews, if, indeed, as has so long been assumed, they have remained a pure and undefiled race during the course of their incessant migrations. We should be able to trace their origin if they possess any distinctive head form, either to the one continent or the other, with comparative certainty.

During the last quarter of a century about twenty-five hundred Jews have submitted their heads to scientific measurement. These have naturally for the most part been taken from the Great Russian and Polish branch; a few observers, as Lombroso, Ikof, Jacobs, Glück, and Livi, have taken observations upon a more or less limited number from southern Europe. For purposes of comparison we have reproduced in our footnote a summary of all the results obtained thus far. Inspection of the table shows a surprising uniformity. Ikof's limited series of Spagnuoli from Constantinople, and that of the Jews from Caucasia and Daghestan, are the only ones whose cephalic index lies outside the limits of 80 to 83. In other words, the Jews,

Authority. Place. Number. Cephalic Index.
Lombroso, 1894 a Turin, Italy. 112 82.0
Weisbach, '77 Balkan states. 19 82.2
Majer and Kopernicki, '77. Galicia. 316 83.6
Blechmann, '82 W. Russia 100 83.2
Stieda, '83 (Dybowski) Minsk, Russia. 67 82.2
Ikof, '84 Russia. 120 74.5
Ikof, '84 Constantinople. 17 crania 74.5
Ikof, '84 Crimea. 30 crania (Karaim). 83.3
Majer and Kopernicki, '85 Galicia. 100 81.7
Jacobs, '90 England. 363 80.0
Jacobs, '90 England (Sephardim). 51
Talko-Hyrncewicz, '92 Russia. 713
Chantre, '95 Caucasia. 34 85.0
Weissenberg, '95 South Russia. 100 82.5
Weissenberg, '95 South Russia. 50 women 82.4
Glück, '96 Bosnia (Spagnuoli). 55 80.1
Livi, '96 Italy. 34 81.6
Elkind, '97 Poland 325 Men, 81.9
Women 82.9
Deniker, '98 Daghestan 19 87.0

wherever found in Europe, betray a remarkable similarity in head form, the crania being considerably broader than among the peoples of Teutonic descent. As we know, the extremes of head form in Europe, measured by the cephalic index, extend from 74 to 89; we thus observe that the Jews take a place rather high in the European

  1. Bertholon, 1892, p. 43; Sergi, 1897 a, chapter i, and even more recently Fouquet, 1896 and 1897, on the basis of De Morgan's discoveries.