cement is swept over the surface, and it is thoroughly rolled with a steam roller of not less than ten tons, the rolling to be continued as long as the roller makes any impression on the surface.
The foundation is usually of cement concrete about six inches thick, though asphalt pavements are often laid over old stone pavements. Between the foundation and the wearing surface there is generally laid what is called a binder course, one inch thick and formed of small broken stone, to which has been added asphaltic cement, the same as is used in making the wearing surface. Five or six pints of this cement are used to each cubic foot of stone.
The pavement just described is made from Trinidad asphalt, the material from which nearly all the earlier artificial asphalt
pavements in this country were made, and which was used almost exclusively until within the last half dozen years.
Within that time, however, it has been discovered that there are a number of other deposits of asphalt well adapted to use for street pavements. A very large deposit containing a high percentage of bitumen and very little mineral matter is located near the coast in the State of Bermudez, in Venezuela. Large deposits have been found in several places in California, and in Utah, Kentucky, and Texas, and a number of other places. The Kentucky product is classed as a natural rock asphalt, as it is a sandstone impregnated with bitumen. It has been mixed with about an equal portion of German rock asphalt and used with very satisfactory results in Buffalo. These asphalts are quite different in their com-