150 were shot for the table. Out of 40 specimens only 14 were males. The dovekie came early, May 13, 1896.
The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is also present the entire summer. It was the first visitor in 1895, when on May 14 it was seen in 84° 38' N., and what is of special interest, was flying from the north-northeast.
The snow hunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), although a land-bird, was seen both summers at somewhat infrequent intervals, as far as 84° 45' N. They fed on refuse near the ships, but were also seen near water-holes, and appeared to be feeding on crustaceans. Two of three specimens were males. The first specimen in 1895 visited the Fram on May 22 in 84° 40' N., and then flew towards the north. In 1896 it appeared on April 25, the first bird of the year, in 84° 17' N.
The kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) was much less numerous than the ivory gull. It was seen in 82° 54' N. They fed, as a rule, on crustaceans, although in one bird were found parts of a Gadus saida about 70 mm. in length. A Gadus about 120 mm. in length was observed on July 16, 1895, in 84° 42' N., the most northerly point at which any fish has been found.
The fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) came early in 1895, on May 13, and in 1896 on May 22. This bold, voracious bird fed on crustaceans usually, and owing to its villainous smell was utilized principally as food for dogs. The last bird of 1895, a fulmar, was seen on September 14, when the Fram was in 85° 05' N., 79° E. This is the most northern latitude in which any bird has ever been observed.
The fulmars and ivory gulls were very bold and noisy, the latter being specially objectionable. Ivory gulls were seen at the winter hut in Franz Josef Land until October, when all water had long been frozen over, and appeared again as early as March 12, 1896.
The first roseate gulls were young birds observed August 3, 1894, in 81° 05' N., 120° E., about 500 kilometres from the nearest land. A long and interesting description is given of these gulls in various stages. One of the beautiful plates, which is imperfectly reproduced, shows the plumage of a very young gull about a month old. Their food consists exclusively of small fish and crustaceans, of the latter the Hymenodora glacialis predominating. Large numbers of these beautiful gulls were seen in 1895 to the northeast of Franz Josef Land, which points to their breeding in that locality. One was seen by Nansen on July 11, 1895, in 82° 08' N., flying from the northeast.
The very full memoir on Crustacea is by Dr. G-. O. Sars, well known as one of the editorial committee of the scientific work of the Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition. As the greater number of marine vertebrate animals collected by the Norwegian North Polar Expedition