Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 60.djvu/117

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rapidity, and must be satisfied, if at all, by foreign imports of food and raw materials; there is no other means of satisfaction. But what is true of the United Kingdom is true in a greater or less degree of certain European countries—France, the Low Countries, the Scandinavian countries, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany. Especially is it true in a remarkable degree of Germany, which is becoming increasingly industrial and manufacturing, and where the room for expansion in agriculture is now very limited. Those interested in the subject may be referred to an excellent paper by Mr. Crawford, read at the Royal Statistical Society of London about two years ago. What I am now desirous to point out is the governing nature of the idea, which necessarily follows from the conception of a European population living on a limited area, with the agricultural and extractive possibilities long since nearly exhausted, and the population all the time increasing in numbers and wealth. Such a population must import more and more year by year, and must be increasingly dependent on foreign supplies.

I shall not attempt to do over again what is done in Mr. Crawford's paper, but a few figures may serve to illustrate what is meant. In the 'Statistical Abstract' for the principal and other foreign countries I find tables for certain European countries classifying the imports for a series of years into articles of food, raw and semi-manufactured articles, etc. From these I extract the following particulars for all the countries which have tables in this form:

Imports of Articles of Food and Raw Materials and Semi-manufactured Articles into the undermentioned Countries in 1888 and 1898 compared.
1888 1898 Increase.
Amount. Per Cent.
Articles of Food, etc.
Russia 1,000 roubles 78,975 105,391 27,416 35
German Empire, mln. marks 907 1,819 912 100
France 1,000 francs 1,503,000 1,505,000 Nil Nil
Switzerland " 238,000 332,000 94,000 42
Italy 1,000 lire 274,480 391,600 117,120 42
Austria-Hungary, 1,000 (1891)
gulden 108,441 191,919 92,478 85
Raw and Semi-manufactured Materials.
Russia 1,000 roubles 241,497 313,629 71,132 29
German Empire, mln. marks 1,507 2,247 334 49
France 1,000 francs 2,014 2,348 334 16
Switzerland " 308,110 390,111 82,001 27
Italy 1,000 lire 398,330 509,418 111,088 28
Austria-Hungary, 1,000 231,000 293,000 62,000 27
gulden 231,000 293,000 62,000 27