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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 65.djvu/164

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THE POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY.

route was up the river, but the works on Lookout Mountain controlled both the river and the railroad west of the town. Down the river and out of range of the guns on Lookout was Brown's ferry, which was guarded by a force of confederates. Hooker's division, which had been brought from the east, was thrown across the river and, capturing the force there, entrenched a position commanding the river, which was now clear below this point.

The famine in Chattanooga soon ended. Supplies came to Bridgeport, from thence to Brown's ferry, which Hooker was guarding, and then by wagon to the army. The soldiers were soon well fed and clothed by the 'cracker route,' as it was appropriately called.

Grant was now free to develop offensive plans. It will be remembered that Bragg's lines stretched from bis left on Lookout Mountain to Missionary Ridge, where his right was strongly entrenched; Thomas was to threaten the confederate center, Sherman was to attack heavily on Missionary Ridge and Hooker was to move on Lookout Mountain and the enemy's left.

The latter's movement in the celebrated 'battle above the clouds' was successful. However, since the establishment of the new line of supplies, Lookout had ceased to be the key to the position. Sherman found the opposing works stronger than he expected and he was not immediately successful. However, in the center the unexpected happened. This position was believed to be too strong to be carried by direct assault and the attack was intended to prevent reinforcements being sent against Sherman. The troops had orders to stop at the first rifle pits, but they could not be restrained. They rushed up the steep slope, carried the position and the confederate center was broken. Bragg was badly beaten and withdrew to Dalton. The region was not out of union hands during the rest of the war.

Chattanooga's importance has not ceased with the close of the war. Its position at the gateway between the grain and cotton states, together with the resources of the surrounding country, makes the location of an important city in this region almost inevitable. Since the war, the river has been made navigable most of the year to the Ohio. Railroads have multiplied and eleven lines enter the city. Iron, coal, limestone, cotton, lumber, grain are near at hand in the valley and plateau. The city's population and manufactories have doubled in a few years. The battlefields in the vicinity have been surveyed and mapped and the Chattanooga and Chickamauga parks rank with Gettysburg among the military parks of the world.

At a point near Chattanooga one can view the two aspects of the place without changing his position. In the beautiful national cemetery rest over twelve thousand veterans of '63. Turning a little, the city is in view. Its factories are a prophecy not only of the city, but as well of the New South.