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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 65.djvu/181

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THE PRUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE.

with him in his work. The latter spent sixteen years in Paris on a collection of plants carried thither by Alexander von Humboldt, and at his death left a herbarium containing 55,000 specimens, which the government was wise enough to purchase. Zoology and anatomy were represented in the academy by Rudolphi, Lichtenstein, Ehrenberg, Klug and Johannes Müller. The first named was director of the zoological museum, which he made the finest in Europe. He was author of 'Journeys in South Africa.' Klug worked in entomology for more than half a century, and at his death left the museum more than 80,000 species of insects in more than 260,000 specimens. He gave no little attention to the study of spiders and shells. Ehrenberg is famous throughout the world as a microscopist. The titles to his papers, his reports to the academy and his works fill twenty-five pages in the quarto catalogue of the academy. In anatomy and physiology the studies of Müller, who was twenty-five years in the academy, were epoch-making for the science of biology. It is admitted that he made physiology a science. Alexander von Humboldt was recognized as the most distinguished man of science of his generation. Devoting himself to no single department of science, he became eminent as a man of almost universal knowledge. At his death the king consented that his friends should establish a fund in his memory, the income of which is available under the direction of the academy for journeys in various parts of the world in the interest of such studies as Humboldt himself had most eagerly pursued. Carl Hitter was the founder of the scientific study of geography. Ideler combined the study of modern languages, in which he was an adept, with the study of mathematics and astronomy. F. A. Wolff gave himself to philology, a science which he did a great deal to form and develop. Niebuhr, Buttmann, Boeckh, Bekker, Suesmilch were ornaments to the academy. The last named was followed by Lachmann and Meineke, and these in turn by Hirst and Uhden, who began the study of archeology, which E. Gerhard did so much to push forward into the prominence it deserves. In Borne Niebuhr gathered many manuscripts, which were of use in the preparation of the Latin inscriptions. Though a librarian, Buttmann gave himself to lexicography and grammar. While England and America are deeply indebted to him for his 'Grammar of the Greek Language,' which first appeared in 1820, it is not too much to say that he made the study of that language popular and scientific for his native land. Lachmann, who lived from 1793 to 1851, was a born critic. He was a student of old dialects of modern languages, as well as of the classics and of the text of the New Testament. Zumpt was distinguished as a Latinist and for his grammar of that language. E. Gerhard was famous as an archeologist, but was most useful in carrying through Mommsen's plan for gathering, collecting, arranging and publishing the Latin inscriptions. Francis Bopp came to Berlin at the suggestion