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in the distributing of the prizes, which consist of a medal and a diploma which entitle the possessor to a two years' residence in Rome. These prizes are granted for excellence in painting, sculpture, architecture and musical composition. Its meetings, like those of the Academy of the Immortals, are in private, while those of the other academies, though attended by but few, are open to the public.


The Academy of Moral and Political Science

The Academy of Moral and Political Science was the creation of the revolution. By its originators it was made the fourth in the institute. Suppressed by Napoleon in 1803, it was reestablished in 1832 at the suggestion of Guizot, then prime minister. It began with thirty members, but in 1855 the number was increased to forty, with ten free members in training for the vacancies, forty-five corresponding members and six foreign associate members. The academy does its work through five groups of men who form committees on philosophy, morals, legislation, public law and jurisprudence, political science and statistics, general and philosophical history. Its sessions are on Saturday's at 1 p.m. The academy has always been an object of dread to revolutionists, and to men like the first Napoleon, but of special interest to lovers of freedom and progress. Some of the most distinguished names in French history are on its books, names of men like Bartholomew St. Hilaire, who was an active member more than fifty years, Guizot, Louis Reybard, Jules Simon, Cousin, Geraud, Hippolyte Passy, Michelet and scores of others almost as eminent.


Other Learned Societies

But the institute, far-reaching as have been its aims, has by no means met all the needs of the learned men of Paris or prevented them from forming self-supporting societies in large numbers for special work in various fields of research. It has, in fact, stimulated the formation of these societies. The names of some of the more important of these societies follow:

The Academy of Medicine, formed by royal command December 10, 1830, has a constitution like that of the Academy of Sciences and a large membership. Its meetings are on Wednesdays during the working portion of the year.

The French Association for the Advancement of Science, now united with the Scientific Association of France, was founded by Le Verrier in 1864 and has at least 3,400 members, each one of whom pays as dues 20 francs a year.

The National Acclimatizing Society of France, zoology and botany applied, founded in 1854, has a membership of 1,000. The dues are 25 francs a year.