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the new astrophysical observatory of the Western University of Pennsylvania—the equal of any in the world. "I can not say," he says, "that the bank balance bears a fair relation to the work we have done," but he adds that in view of the marvelous discoveries made, and the appreciative and kind treatment he has had from the world, he feels like saying, "I am content. ... I have that which can not be bought by dollars and cents." Dr. Brashear always emphasizes that his associate and son-in-law, James B. McDowell, is master of the development of the delicate work in optical service; and that he could never have made his success without McDowell's cooperation. Dr. Charles S. Hastings, of Yale University has also been associated with Dr. Brashear in the development of the mathematical problems of modern optics: the day of empiricism in optical science having become a thing of the past. Dr. Brashear has twice been a director of the Allegheny Observatory; and is now chairman of the Observatory Committee; he served two and a half years as acting chancellor of the Western University of Pennsylvania. He has degrees of LL.D. from Wooster University of Ohio and Washington-Jefferson Unversity, as well as degree of Sc.D. from the Western University.

Pittsburgh's "arrogance and greed" have been so advertised that it should be permissible to mention that the city contains more than one hundred and fifty active benevolent and charitable institutions; more than twenty large, finely equipped hospitals; and over four hundred churches of all denominations. It is scarcely more of an iron city than a city of churches and church-going people. There are benevolent societies, non-sectarian and sectarian; homes for the destitute, aged, infirm, white and colored, for men, women, girls and children; public baths for the poor; children's playgrounds for poor children.

One of the most notable institutions (undoubtedly the most remarkable single-handed permanent beneficence in the world) is the Carnegie Relief Fund, endowed five years ago by Andrew Carnegie, with a gift of four million dollars in Steel Company bonds. This fund applies to more than 65,000 men employed in the iron and steel trades, who, with their families and dependents, would comprise an aggregate population of over 300,000 persons. The bonds bear good interest, and the income provides for accidents, deaths and pensions. There has been a total disbursement already of $1,129,117.29. In 1907 the amount paid out was $216,764.03.

A well-known writer has said that Pittsburgh men are strong, upright and good intentioned, but "too busy" in the upbuilding of industries and fortunes to pay attention to the civic welfare. Perhaps the utterance was timely; for since then the long-delayed civic awakening has come to pass. The betterment, always hoped for—regarded by the many as impossibly Utopian, but always fought for by a tenacious and stubborn few—is an accomplished and positive fact. Two years