with the use of the magnesium flashlight and electric arc lamps. Since that time excellent aquatic photographs in aquaria have been made by Dr. R. W. Schufeldt, Mr. A. R. Dugmore and others, but the photography of fishes and other subaquatic life has by no means reached the degree of perfection that has recently been obtained in photographing birds and wild mammals in their natural habitats.
Albrecht von Haller.
Eminent as physiologist, botanist and poet, the two hundredth anniversary of whose birth will be celebrated by the University of Bern on October 15.
Professor Jacob Reighard, in a recent bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries, has taken up the subject and describes methods of subaquatic photography, both when the camera is outside the water and when it is submerged. The former method must be used when the water is shallow, and good results can be secured when ways are found by which the light reflected from the surface of the water is cut off and a smooth surface is obtained. In deep water, however, and for many purposes it is necessary to use a submerged camera. Professor Reighard describes the apparatus he used at the Tortugas, and examples of the photographs taken are here reproduced. According to Professor Reighard's description, in the upper picture a butterfly-fish (Chætodon capistratus) with a stripe through the eye and an eye-like spot on the tail is seen over a flat expanse of coral (Meandrina) and at the base of a large, branching