Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 78.djvu/197

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193
THE DYNAMICS OF A GOLF BALL

this is the path of a ball without spin. I can imitate the effect of spin by exposing the particles while they are moving to magnetic force, for the theory of these particles shows that when a magnetic force acts upon them, it produces a mechanical force which is at right angles to the direction of motion of the particles, at right angles also to the magnetic force and proportional to the product of the

PSM V78 D197 Effect of gravity on electron flow or golf ball flight 1.png
Fig. 16.

velocity of the particles, the magnetic force and the sine of the angle between them. We have seen that the force acting on the golf ball is at right angles to the direction in which it is moving at right angles to the axis of spin, and proportional to the product of the velocity of the ball, the velocity of spin and the sine of the angle between the velocity and the axis of spin. Comparing these statements you will see that the force on the particle is of the same type as that on the golf

PSM V78 D197 Effect of gravity on electron flow or golf ball flight 2.png
Fig. 17.

ball if the direction of the magnetic force is along the axis of spin and the magnitude of the force proportional to the velocity of spin, and thus if we watch the behavior of these particles when under the masmetic force we shall get an indication of the behavior of the sninning golf ball. Let us first consider the effect of underspin on

PSM V78 D197 Effect of gravity on electron flow or golf ball flight 3.png
Fig. 18.

the flight of the ball: in this case the ball is spinning, as in Fig. 3, about a horizontal axis at right angles to the direction of flight. To imitate this spin I must apply a horizontal magnetic force at right angles to the direction of flight of the particles. I can do this by means of the electromagnet. I will begin with a weak magnetic force, representing a small spin. You see how the path differs from