its successors (systematic medicine). These systems were developed by distinguished teachers or writers, were usually mutually antagonistic, and left but little impress of abiding value or truth upon internal medicine. The chief of these medical systems were as follow: In the seventeenth century:
1. The mystical system of Van Helmont (1578-1644), in which such factors as the fall of man, spirits, demons and witches figured as causes of disease; this system was a sort of recasting of the doctrines of Paracelsus.
2. The Iatrochemical system, originated by Franciscus Sylvius (1614—1672), attributed the phenomena of disease to chemical causes (as excess of acid or of alkali); but the chemical ideas underlying the system were crude and fantastic.
3. The Iatrophysical (Iatromechanical or Iatromathematical) system, originated by Sanctorius (1561-1635) or more especially by Borelli (1608-1679), explained physiologic and pathologic processes as brought about by the physical and mechanical activities of the body structures, and employed precise methods for measuring those activities. This system had considerable following, and while it may have contributed to physiologic knowledge it was ineffective as a basis for therapeutics.
4. The system of Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689), of England, who largely followed Hippocrates.
In the eighteenth century:
5. The eclectic doctrines of Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738), of Holland; he was preeminently a clinician, and in his day was the most celebrated practitioner of Europe.
6. Animism, the spiritualistic system of Georg Ernest Stahl (1660-1734).
7. The system of Friedrich Hoffmann (1660-1742), based on the mechanical and motor activities of the body.
8. The system of William Cullen (1712-1790), based especially on the nervous activities of the body.
9. The "Old Vienna School," founded by Gerhard van Swieten (1700-1772), and having Maximilian Stoll (1742-1787) as a distinguished adherent; this school largely followed a humoral pathology, akin to the doctrines of Hippocrates, Sydenham and Boerhaave.
10. The doctrine of "infarctus," introduced by Johann Kämpf (published 1780), according to which diseases in general were due to fecal impactions (or "infarcts") and therapeusis was based on rectal irrigation.
11. Vitalistic systems, based on the activities of the "vital force," supported by Bordeu (1722-1776), Barthez (1734-1806) of the school of Montpellier, Reil (1759-1813) of Germany, Bichat (1771-1802) of France, and others.