York City. The people represented the leading trades and occupations of city workmen under the usual city conditions. Her conclusion was that a well-nourished family of five needs at least $6 a week for food in households where there is good management, and she says further that what is done with the weekly income and the amount of comfort it will bring depends almost entirely upon the character and ability of the wife.
Professor Chapin in his book entitled "The Standard of Living in New York" presents the schedule of expenses of 391 families on an income ranging from $500 to $1,000 per year. The average expenditure for food was $400 a year per family, but in the families whose income fell below $800 or $900 he found them often under-fed because rent must consume so large a part of their income. Dr. F. P. Underhill in commenting upon the nutrition of people of these incomes says that results show that when less than 22 cents per man a day is spent for food the nourishment derived is insufficient. But he adds that it does not necessarily follow that in every family where 22 cents per man a day is spent the people are well nourished, for not all families spend their money wisely, i. e., one report showing that out of $6.17 a week spent for food $1.83 was spent for beer, wine and pickles.
Dr. Irving Fisher, professor of political science at Yale University, has published the results of two series of investigations as to the effect of diet on endurance. He finds endurance much increased by thorough mastication of food, which unconsciously leads to a much lower protein intake than is usually considered necessary in the so-called dietary standards.
These authorities are mentioned only to show something of the importance which the sociologist to-day is attaching to the phenomena of vitality in the development of efficient social personality.
For the harmonious development of efficient social personality certain general conditions of well-being are essential in which all the members of the community share or may share and, even though these are external to the individuality, they are still necessary to its perfection and happiness. "These external conditions include the security of life and possessions which is maintained by the political system; the liberty and justice which are maintained by the legal system; the material well-being which is created by the economic system; the knowledge and the command over nature which are created by the cultural system. These proximate ends collectively we may call public utilities."
These public utilities are means to an ultimate end. They are of
- Fisher, "Influence of Flesh Eating on Endurance," Yale Medical Journal, March, 1907; Fisher, "The Effects of Diet on Endurance," The Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.
- Giddings, "Inductive Sociology," part 4, The Social Welfare.