Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 79.djvu/357

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353
THE SOUNDS OF "CH" AND "J"
hyphenated word was joined on the previous page because of the intervening image.— Ineuw talk 08:06, 30 November 2013 (UTC) (Wikisource contributor note)

PSM V79 D357 Sound recording of the word mitchell.png

Fig. 2. Record of "Mitchell." The record for "ch" shows an occlusion with an explosion of a special form.

PSM V79 D357 Sound recording of the word nut.png

Fig. 3. Record of "Nut." The explosion for the "t" is different from that for "ch" in Fig. 2.

PSM V79 D357 Sound recording of the word atch.png

Fig. 5. Record of "Atch" showing the Final "ch." The end of the occlusion and the form of the explosion are like those of "ch" in Fig. 2.

PSM V79 D357 Sound recording of the word chew.png

Fig. 6. Record of "Chew" showing Initial "ch." The explosion of "ch" is the same as in Fig. 2.

descent of the line after "u" indicates that this sound was cut short by some closure in the mouth, namely, by the tongue action for the sound "c." The line, however, does not remain at zero, but rises gradually; this indicates a steady emission of breath and not a complete closure. The partial closure is finally released and the explosion is registered in the sharp upward movement of the line. The sound "c" thus shows a sharp explosion like that of "t" but an incomplete closure. The closure is much greater than that of "sh" and the emission of air is much smaller (Fig. 4). The Italian soft "c" is therefore not an explosive occlusive like "t" or even like English "ch"; it is not a fricative like "sh"; it might be termed a fricative with an explosion. At any rate it is a distinct sound not existing in English.