Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 79.djvu/612

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in the university sphere depended upon the establishment of girls' schools which would lead to exactly the same goal as the Gymnasium for boys. This was at last accomplished by the splendid organization of girls' instruction of three years ago.

Prussia has now four types of higher schools for girls, each of which may be divided into various independent departments. In the center stands the upper girls' school, a somewhat revised edition of the traditional German school for girls. There are ten classes which are usually passed through in the period from the sixth to the sixteenth year. The first three classes are preparatory, with eight to ten hours a week instruction in the mother tongue, three hours arithmetic every week, two to three hours writing, two hours needlework, three hours of religion, which is an organic part of every German school, two half hours of singing, two half hours of gymnastics and some drawing as well. In the seven upper classes the German language takes six, five and finally four hours a week, and French exactly the same number, altogether thirty-two hours each in those seven years. English is taught in the four upper classes only four hours a week, mathematics three hours a week throughout, geography two hours through the seven years, natural history two hours, religion two hours, drawing two hours, singing two hours, gymnastic two hours, needlework two hours, but this is no longer obligatory in the four upper classes. Those who have passed through this ten years' course may enter either the so-called Frauenschule or the Seminary or the Studienanstalt. The first is planned to complete the education of a young woman who seeks a higher training without any professional aim. It is adjusted to the needs of women who are to play an intelligent role, not only in the home, but also in social life. It is in no way a finishing school for one who aims to shine in society, but meant for those who really want to serve. It is usually a course of two years in which pedagogy, household economy, kindergarten work, hygiene, political economy, civics, bookkeeping and needlework stand in the foreground, while modern languages, history, literature, natural science, art, drawing and music are relegated to the position of minor electives. The Seminary, on the other hand, is meant for those who aim to become teachers of the lower schools. It demands three years' scholarly work and one year of practical training in schools. In those three years of theoretical study, French, English and mathematics take four hours a week each year, German, natural science and religion three hours a week, pedagogy, history and geography two hours. In their fourth year, the practical term, the candidates study pedagogy and methods of teaching seven hours, eight hours a week thesis writing, six hours training in practical class work and six hours training in the practical methods of the various subjects, including laboratory experiments. In addition to all this, through the four years