Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 80.djvu/300

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psycho-pathology, wrought by such investigators as Freud, Jung, Prince, Sidis and Adolf Meyer. The situation may be summed up in a sentence: The physician's training does not qualify him for the many sided tosh of adapting the program and environment of the school to the health and growth needs of the pupil. The main purpose of this article is to suggest tentatively and somewhat roughly some of the more important lines of professional preparation necessary for those who are to work in any field of child hygiene in the public schools.

Educational hygiene has four chief aspects: (1) "Medical Inspection," including routine examinations for physical defects and consequent follow-up service; (2) supervision of physical training, including free play, gymnastics, and athletic sports; and (3) child psychology, including clinical work with mentally and morally atypical children, the hygiene of instruction, etc.; (4) researches in school heating, lighting, ventilation, seating, sanitation and other externals affecting the health of the child. Each of these divisions has of course its logical subdivisions but as only the very largest cities could employ a more specialized stafE than this scheme calls for it is unnecessary to carry the classification further. On the other hand, the majority of school health officers will probably for some years to come have to serve more or less in all these capacities. Assuming, however, the four separate lines of specialization above designated let us examine the general and special courses of study which would be necessary for their successful pursuit.

To begin with, it would seem that the time requirement could not reasonably be placed below seven years in addition to a four year high school course. This corresponds to the usual allotment for the doctorate of philosophy and to that for the doctorate of medicine in our sixteen best medical schools. Using the seven-year basis for our calculation, the course falls naturally into three divisions. The first three years would be given to regular college work in which the elements of physics, chemistry, biology, physiology, psychology, paidology, sociology and at least one modern language would be taught. The next three years would be ample time in which to give all that is needful for the school health officer out of the present medical curriculum, besides leaving a fair margin for collateral work in psychology, paidology, and the technical aspects of education. The last year would be reserved for carefully supervised clinical practise in the public schools. Proof of ability to read both French and German should be required a year before the end of the course, for most of the important researches in school hygiene are in these languages.

Physicians will of course object to the time allotment for the second division. How, they will ask, can you condense a medical course into three years, to say nothing of a margin to be left for psychology and paidology? The answer is more in terms of elimination than of condensation. Pharmacology, materia medica and therapeutics can be dis-