And again he says:
This was from a scientific man, who had much to do with the changes about to come, and perhaps somewhat biased; but we have the view of Stieglitz, an "old and learned practitioner," expressed in 1840:
But, to continue Helmholtz's remarks:
As Helmholtz was born in 1821 his point of view is that of one who saw both the old and the new; the old in his student days, the new as one of those who labored to bring about the change. His view is largely that of the scientist, but we have fortunately the reminiscences of another, a practitioner of medicine, who labored as a student of medicine in those days of rapid change. I refer to Abraham Jacobi, our own Jacobi, "the father of pediatrics," who studied, as he tells us in his McGill address, "in three universities from 1847 to 1851, in Griefswald, Göttingen and Bonn." Referring to this period, he says:
Aside from Vienna, where Rokitansky taught, there were
Among the scientific happenings of Jacobi's first medical year (1847) are the following: Helmholtz's address on the conservation of energy; the use of ether anesthesia in obstetric practise by Hamner and in dentistry by Delabarre (first used by Warren at Boston in 1846); Liebig's researches on meats; the employment of prismatic glasses by Kreke and Bonders; the first use of chloroform by Simpson; the employment of Duchenne of faradization in the treatment of paralysis; the discovery of unstriped muscle fibers by Kölliker and the studies by Semmelweis of the etiology of fever in puerperal women.
Among the events of the next five years, during three of which he was a student and two a political prisoner, Jacobi mentions: Bunsen's quantitative analysis of urea, the founding of spectral analysis, the use