promotion of war, drunkenness and disease. The engineering corps, the health service and the commissiariat are the most important factors in modern warfare. Engineers, health officers, inspectors of food and others employed by the nation, the states and the municipalities should be at the same time officers in the army and those under them enlisted men. A well-organized and efficient army for defense would thus be maintained at comparatively small expense and be an institution for education instead of for demoralization. The navy should be converted into a merchant marine, carrying a postal, express, freight and passenger service to every port in the world. At the cost of an idle navy five to ten times as many ships and men could be maintained and employed in useful work. In case of war swift ships and experienced men would win over dreadnoughts. Shipyards and factories for armaments and ammunition should be owned by the nation and manned by officers and enlisted men. The army and the navy can be made self-supporting nearly as easily as the post office. Fortunately they may be regarded as temporary institutions.
9. Limitation of foreign treaties and representatives. No interference with foreign nations except for humanitarian reasons. The submission of all international questions to arbitration. We are warned against entangling alliances; all treaties are such to a certain extent, and in most cases are at present useless and dangerous, though international courts and agreements may in the future become desirable. Let us be just and generous to all nations and to all foreigners, and trust them to be the same to us. If they are not, those who see fit to deal with them should take the risks. Missionaries, traders and travelers should be subject to the laws and ways of the lands to which they go. Secret diplomacy has no place in a democracy; the social snobbery of an ambassador is disgusting; his political office is made useless by the cable. Arbitration treaties are unnecessary; but we should be ready to submit all questions to arbitration. There should be no interference with foreign affairs, except for clear humanitarian reasons, approved by neutral and disinterested nations. We shall be better off if South America is peopled by Germans and Russians as well as by Spaniards, Portuguese and Indians. War is avoided by delay. It should not be possible for the president to involve the nation in war, and no war except for defense should be undertaken before the question has been submitted to a plebiscite vote and carried by a majority exceeding one half of the population.
10. Colonies and dependencies to be held only for the benefit of the peoples concerned and with their consent. The vigorous and prolific races will supplant those which are decadent; but wars of conquest are now equally injurious to the conqueror and to the conquered. In the past it was necessary for an expanding population to subdue savage