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RESEARCH IN MEDICINE

problems in the broadest way and of assuring the best utilization of endowment and the greatest good for the greatest number.

This discussion might be lengthened by the presentation of other phases of the subject of medical research, but I may well end with Mr. Eliot's all-inclusive characterization:

Medical research habitually strives to arrive at something beyond abstract truth. It seeks to promote public and private safety and happiness, and the material welfare of society. Its devotees have in mind the discovery of means of remedying misery or warding off calamity; and they know that whatever eontributes to health or longevity in any community or nation contributes to its industrial prosperity; so that they are justified in hoping for results from their work which will promote human welfare.

If my presentation of the subject of research in medicine, which now comes to its close, has any value it lies in an attempt to demonstrate two things: (1) That, wonderful as were the isolated achievements of the great discoverers in medicine in the early centuries, the great continuous advance in medicine during the past eighty years resulted from organized laboratory effort based on the principle of exact experimental methods, and (2) that it is the duty of the university so to organize its laboratories and hospital that this advance of medicine by research may continue, side by side with teaching, as a university function of benefit to student and faculty, as well as to the state and the general public welfare, and thus as an aid to the advancement of civilization.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The many and varied sources of the material presented in these lectures it would be difficult to set down. The following list represents the more important books, addresses and other publications used as constant guides in the epitomization of various eras, or for the purpose of direct or indirect quotation.

 

Books

Cabot, E. C. Social Service and the Art of Healing.
Cambridge Modern History. The. Vols. X. and XII.
Darmstaedter, L., and DuBois-Reymond, E. 4,000 Jahre Pionier—Arbeit in den exakten Wissenschaften.
Draper, J. W. History of the Conflict between Religion and Science.
Flexner, A. Medical Education in the United States—Bulletin No. 4 of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Foster, M. Masters of Medicine—Claude Bernard.
Gorton, D. A. The History of Medicine.
Harrison, F. The Meaning of History.
Herter, C. A. The Influence of Pasteur on Medical Science.
Lawrence, R. M. Primitive Psycho-Therapy and Quackery.
MacFie, R. C. The Romance of Medicine.
Merz, J. T. History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century.
Mumford, J. G. Surgical Memoirs.
Mumford. J. G. A Narrative of Medicine in America.
Neuberger, M. History of Medicine.