"About one fifth of the soldiers in the National Encampment in the United States in 1898 developed typhoid fever." "The percentage of deaths among typhoid fever cases was 7.61." "The deaths from typhoid fever were 86.24 per cent, of the total deaths." Puparia and Maggots or Larvæ of House Fly. Enlarged three times.
"Flies undoubtedly serve as carriers of the infection."
In other words, out of 107,973 officers and men in the camps, 20,738 were sick and 1,578 died from typhoid. From the above figures it is evident that flies are more effective destructive agents than Spanish bullets.
According to Dr. Alice Hamilton, the Chicago typhoid epidemic of 1902 was traced largely to the agency of flies.
- Walter Reed, V. C. Vaughn, E. O. Shakespeare, "Report on the Origin and Spread of Typhoid Fever in U. S. Military Camps during the Spanish War of 1898," p. 666.
- Hamilton, Journal of American Medical Association, 40, 576.