Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 89.djvu/31

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Popular Science Montlily



��A Mechanical Whip through which passes a whi|5-support.

N apparatus easily attachable to This extends upward for the reception

the tongue or thill of any horse- of the whip, and downward to connect

��drawn vehicle en- ables the clri\x'r to wield a whip with- out touching it. He does not have to earn' his whip, yet it is ready for use at all times. His hands are free when operating harvesters, dump- wagons, riding- plows, and this is a decided ad\antage. The construction of this device is based on the spring and lever principle. An upright iron support is attached to the tongue or thill. The upper part is bent back toward the driver with the end ex-

���By means ot a lever, this whip can be applied in any direction

��with a Stout spring. A long rod is attached to the whip-support at its junction with the spring, and this ex- tends backward to thed river's seat, terminating in a hand-grasp. This rod is suspended in its middle portion from an angular bracket attached to the body of the vehicle. This sup- ports the rod and prevents the ball from dropping. The action of the ball and spring is such that the whip may be manipula- ted in any direction

��and when released

panded into a ring whose diameter is returns to its original position. It is a horizontal. Mttiiig in the ring is a ball more humane weapon than most whips.

��Welding Soft Metal to Hard

FOR welding copper or aluminum to iron or steel or for welding to any hard metal, such as iron, nickel, steel or the like, a comparatively soft metal such as copper, zinc, silver or gold, an apparatus has been devised which brings the surfaces of the tAvo dissimilar metals into contact with each other in a vacuum or partial vacuum, and then heats the metals to a high temperature.

��By producing a vacuum around two metals they can be quickly welded. The air in the metal furnace is exhausted and an arc formed between the two electrodes. The heat melts the met- als and they inter- mingle readily. This welding can be effected between any soft metal and one which is hard


��The apparatus comprises a container or furnace preferabK- made of refractory material with a metal jacket provided with a doorway which, when closed, makes the interior air-tight. A pipe or conduit enables the air to be exhausted by suction. After cleaning, the two dissimilar metals are placed in contact with each other within the crucible. The doorway is sealed, the air exhausted, the current turned on, and an arc is formc-d between the elec- trodes, which forms sufficient heat to bring the tempera- ture of the two metals near the fusing point of the softer metal. When this occurs a wold or union of the sur- faces is the result.

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