��Popular Science Monthly
��Putting the Finishing Touches to a Collar by Machinery
THE home of the first collar, Troy, New York, is also the home of the latest improvement in collar machinery. By the new power-driven finishing machines manufactured there, three distinct opera- tions are now performed where only one was made previously. The machines con- tain four attachments, each consisting of a lower and upper mold. The thickness of the sides of the cup-shaped lower mold is equal to the thickness of the tie-space that is required between the two bands of a collar.
When two collars are fitted to two of the at- tachments and a lever is pressed, the upper molds of the attach- ments are automatically pressed downward against the two collars. At the same time, steam is admitted be- tween the two molds as they press against the collar. The action of this steam for only a few seconds causes the starch to soften so that any starch cracks that may be present are deftly removed as their edges heal together.
The thickness of the inner mold pro- duces the tie-space. The pressure of the molds smooths the collar and at the same time makes it round so that its two point- will match when the collar is closed. All this is done in the one operation in five seconds.
While this is going on, two more collars are placed on the other attach- ments, and while these are being "finished," the first two collars are released. In this way no time is lost and as many as twenty collars are done in one minute.
��The Ever-Popular Pickwick Chair and Toy Table
THE Pickwick chair is the most popular piece of furniture in the nursery. The chair is of wood, carved and painted like a seated figure, the arms and hands forming the chair-arms. The seat lifts and toys may be stowed in. the chair, while shirred cretonne pockets, which look just like Mr. Pickwick's own coat pockets, hang down at each side to hold toys. The toy table is long and narrow. Its top can be lifted up.
���A collar-finishing which performs three different operations within five seconds
���A silver fork or other metal point does as well as a pencil on this paper
��Writing on Coated Book Paper with a Fork
MOST persons are sur- prised to learn that an ordinary silver fork and other metal forms write on coated book paper almost as clearly and easily as the lead pencil. This action is not chemical but me- chanical, though some scientists argue strongly in favor of chemical action.
Coated book-papers are treated with a sub- stance that may be readily rubbed off; or the position of the particles of the substance may be so changed in their relation to the surroundings that they do not reflect the light.. Thus they give the part so changed by the metal a black appearance, similar to that of lead. Upon examining the under a microscope it impossible to find any particles of the metal hat have been rubbed off, or any evidence that the paper itself has undergone any chemical change. Platinum also marks the paper. This is proof pos- itive that the action is mechani- cal, because plati- num resists all chemi- cals except nitric and hydrochloric acids mixed (aqua regia).