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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 90.djvu/680

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664

��Popular Science Monthly

���At the approach of poison gas in the trenches a klaxon horn is sounded

A Honk! Honk!" in the Trenches Means "Don Your Gas Masks!"

THE deadly gases which have been introduced into trench warfare as the equal if not the superior of exploding shrap- nel for exterminating an enemy, have necessitated the use of various kinds of gas masks, many of which have proved effec- tive. But it is inconvenient for the soldiers to wear the masks constantly. So, various mechanical devices have been used to give the alarm of approaching poison gas to enable the troops to put on the masks in time to avoid danger. In a French trench the klaxon horn, shown in the ac- companying photo- graph is used for the purpose, which gives an altogether new meaning to the fa- miliar "honk." The masks are kept with- in instant reach, and so readily are they adjusted that when the alarm is heard the soldiers almost immediately be- come unrecognizable under them and cor- respondmgly safe.

��Massaging the Digestive Organs by Deep Breathing

PHYSICIANS agree that massaging the abdominal organs is at best a delicate procedure requiring the skill of a profes- sional in order to prevent more harm than good being done. And yet abdominal massage is recommended as a help or cure for various ills, especially for constipation. A method which is so gentle that no baneful effects could possibly result employs sys- tematic deep breathing as the agent.

The diaphragm and the muscles of the abdomen share in the work of respiration and at the same time press rhythmically upon the intestines. In order to increase the pressure so that massaging of the intestines results, it is only necessary to breathe more deeply than is customary and to keep it up rhythmically. The patient should lie face downward across the bed taking from five to seven deep breaths a minute. A pillow under the abdomen serves to press the organs in so that the force of the breathing is felt more by the enclosed organs than by the stretching outer skin.

���The transportation system which a gold- bearing district in Alaska boasts. The track is composed of wooden poles

��Railroading in Alaska Is Still Far from Rapid

THE photograph below shows the only method of transportation in the rich gold-bearing Iditarod region of Alaska, and this is probably all they will have for some time to come, although their outlet or con- nection is now a real railroad line instead of uncertain water transportation as formerly. Gold was discovered there about six years ago with the usual resultant rush of miners and prospec- tors.

The present rail- road consists simply of short poles for ties, laid on the mossy surface of the ground, without bal- last, and rails of sawed wood ; but on it a tandem of stout horses with one driv- er can haul a tram car containing as much merchandise as was formerly car- ried by a pack train of twenty animals.

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