Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 91.djvu/421

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Popular Science Monthly

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���The turrets are rotated by turning engines or motors which move them on rollers lying in a circular path. The revolving turret was invented in 1841

��Some ships have electrical galleys in which the cooking, dishwashing, paring of pota- toes and practically all work is done by electricity. The chief cook is an expert electrician. On the Arizona they find oil- burning galleys more economical.

Landlubber — What advantages has the oil-fuel ships over the coal-burning?

Major Evans — The space formerly re- quired for coal bunkers is now available for greater crew space. The oil-burners are more flexible of control in increasing or reducing speed and are practically smoke- less. The crew is free from the bugbear of coaling ship. This ship carries twenty- three hundred tons of oil fuel.

Landlubber — You mentioned the ma- rines. What do they do?

Major Evans — Originally marines were employed aboard men-of-war to put down mutinies. Today their duties are almost identical with those of the bluejacket's. For all landing parties the marines, being trained soldiers as well, "hit the beach" first. In battle they man the torpedo defense guns, help supply ammunition to the turret guns and do other duties. Those not with the fleet either guard our Navy yards or are held in battalions or regiments for expeditionary service. Each battleship has a captain and lieutenant of marines and

��accommodates about seventy-five marines.

Landlubber— I hope you don't mind my asking why the trousers of a sailor flare out so at the bottom.

Major Evans — That's a sensible query. With the "bell" or "spring" bottom he can easily roll his trousers above his knees when washing decks. The three narrow white stripes on his collar are inherited from the stripes worn by the British blue- jacket in commemoration of Nelson's three great sea victories. The black kerchief is supposed to have been first worn as mourning at Nelson's death.

Landlubber — Where is the captain stationed in battle?

Major Evans — The conning tower is his battle station. A complete steering and communication system is contained in its 1 6-inch walls, and armored tubes also con- nect it with the protective deck to prevent these systems from being crippled in action.

Landlubber — What do you call this mast that looks like a waste basket upside down?

Major Evans — The military or fire- control mast. It is made of steel tubing so that one successful shot cannot carry it away like the old solid mast. It carries the fire control communications and signals, and the wireless.

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