Popular Science Monthly
��Typewriting in Code on a Specially Constructed Machine
THE war has brought forth many devices for communication in code; and many different codes are used in the different departments, as well as among individuals. The invention of a typewriter which will print in code follows as a natural con- sequence, for time and speed cannot be sacrificed continually, even in the interest of secrecy and safety.
The code typewriter is a complete type- writer, standard keyboard, with nothing in its appearance to indicate that it is not an ordinary typewriter. On this machine a stenographer may produce the cipher writing with the same speed as though he were writing in English. It is the inven- tion of Edward Hebern, of Oakland, Cal.
All the characters of a standard keyboard may be represented, in the cipher of letters. In placing figures and other characters not letters into cipher the shift key is not operated, but in order to translate them out of the cipher it is necessary to hold down the shift key in copying the cipher letters that represent figures and other characters.
For the receiver of a cipher message to ascertain what letters represent other characters than letters, he simply copies the whole of the message. The parts repre- sented by figures remain in cipher. He then sets the shift key and recopies those portions; the result will be that the figures or other characters will be printed.
An unlimited number of different codes may be used. A change of code is effected without changing the position of the letters on either the keyboard or type. The code is changed by means of a small aluminum de vice called the "code bar," weighing about one ounce. It is simply withdrawn from a slideway and another bar, set in a different code, is in- serted. The code bar contains twenty -six graduated letter blocks. By unscrew- ing a thumbscrew and moving the let- ter blocks to a differ- ent position a change is made.
����The code is changed by means of a small code bar having twenty -six letter blocks
��A bunch of fire-crackers to scare away the malicious spirits of storms and submarines
Fire-Crackers: A Chinese Protection Against Submarines
THE Chinese are superstitious. They are constantly trying to slaughter the myriads of malicious spirits and sprites that are supposed to flutter everywhere, even under the bed or between the cracks of a floor.
Fortunately, it is a comparatively simple matter to put a couple of thousand sprites out of the way in one fell swoop. All you need do is to explode a fire-cracker. The evil spirit and malicious sprite can't stand noise. It irritates them to dis- traction. If loud enough it kills them. Conseq uen tly, when a Chinese crew makes ready to hoist anchor the first cere- mony is to unpack the fire-crackers and slaughter the evil spirits with a five- minute bombard- ment. Nowadays great quantities of fireworks are carried.