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the pāṇḍil, which will be described later on, tied with tape, taṭṭam,[1] or kachchu,[2] woven with decorative lines, like the stripes of a tiger; this kind of cot was called kachchukkaṭṭil,[3] the former being kayiṛṛukkaṭṭil.[4]

Besides the cot there was the toṭṭil,[5] cradle, literally, hanging place, (from to,[6] whose intensive is toṅgu,[7] to hang,) tūḷi,[8] hammock, ūñjal[9] or vīśupalagai,[10] swinging plank, kuḍalai[11] plaited basket for gathering flowers, śimiḻ,[12] small casket, uṛi,[13] or śimili,[14] a loop of string suspended from the roof of a house or from the end of a pole called kāvaḍi,[15] by means of which one man can carry two men's loads; kaṇappu,[16] or kumbaṭṭi[17] for warming the hands and the breast during cold nights, paṭṭaḍai,[18] śumuḍu,[19] śummāḍu,[20] contrivances on which to stand pots kūḍu,[21] coop, kudir,[22] granary, paraṅ,[23] idaṇam,[24] kaḻudu,[25] paḍagam,[26] paṇavai,[27] loft for storing articles, also raised platform for watching birds and other enemies of the growing crops, taḍavu,[28] indalam,[29] censer, ñelikōl,[30] stick for churning fire, tūkku,[31] kā,[32] niṛaikol,[33] steelyard introduced into Europe by the Dutch and hence called Dutch steel-yard, kavaṇ,[34] taḻal,[35] sling, also bull-roarer; pāy,[36] mat, and mettai,[37] aṇai,[38] amaḷi,[39] kāguḷi,[40] taviśu,[41] taḷimam,[42] bed stuffed with cotton. These constitute, even now, the complete furniture of Tamil homes such as have not come under the seductive influence of European foreign trade.

The poorer people lived in huts, kuḍiśai,[43] kuḍil,[44] kuchchu,[45] kuchchil,[46] kurambai.[47] Their walls were made of wattle and clay, and they were generally circular, rarely rectangular, in shape; the roof was rarely aspidal, but mostly domical and topped by a pot, kuḍam,[48] through a hole in which were passed the bamboos constituting the framework of the roof; and from the early days when such huts were built, temples were built in similar fashion, and when later they were built of brick or stone, over the shrines was built a domical roof, furnished with a metal pot, now called kalaśam[49] and serving an ornamental, not useful, purpose.

The following is a description of a hunter's hut of old times:—

In the huts of the hunters were leaning, on the planks decorated with bells, lances whose ends were blunted and smelling of flesh from the bodies of enemies whom the hunters killed and left lying on the ground, a prey for kites. Bows with the string tied in knots were also leaning on the walls on which there was a thatch of ūga[50] grass. Bundles of arrows with notches like honeycombs on hills were hanging from the thick legs of the pandal. The huts were guarded by dogs chained to posts. The compound was surrounded by a living hedge of thorns. The door was fastened by a strong beam. In front were

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