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showy purple convolvulus, Ipomaea hederacea, and a curious lily, Gloriosa superba.

Temperate Himalaya.— The richest part of the temperate Himalayan flora is probably in the 7500-10,000 zone. Above 10,000 feet sup-alpine conditions begin, and at 12,000 feet tree growth becomes very scanty and the flora is distinctly alpine. The chir pine so common in sub-Himalayan forests extends up to 6500 feet. At this height

Provincial Geographies of India Volume 1 0100.jpg

Fig. 20. Deodárs and Hill Temple.

and 1000 feet lower the ban oak (Quercus incana), grey on the lower side of the leaf, which is so common at Simla, abounds. Where the chil stops, the kail or blue pine (Pinus excelsa), after the deodar the most valuable product of Himalayan forests, begins. Its zone may be taken as from 7000 to 9000 feet. To the same zone belong the kelu or deodar (Cedrus Libani), the glossy leaved mohru