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Cynoglossum, gentians and Swertias, Androsaces and primroses, Wulfenia and louseworts, species of Strobilanthes, Salvias and Nepetas, orchids, irises, Ophiopogon, Smilax, Alliums, lilies, and Solomon's seal. Snake plants (Arisaema) and their relation Sauromatum guttatum of the order Araceae are very common in the woods. The striped spathe in some species of Arisaema bears

Provincial Geographies of India Volume 1 0104.jpg

Fig. 23. Rhododedron campanulatum.

a curious resemblance to the head of a cobra uplifted to strike. Orchids decrease as one proceeds westwards, but irises are much more common in Kashmir than in the Simla hills. The Kashmir fritillaries include the beautiful Crown Imperial.

Alpine Himalaya.— In the Alpine Himalaya the scanty tree-growth is represented by willows, junipers, and