IN his opening chapter Sir James Douie refers to the fact that the area treated in this volume — just one quarter of a million square miles — is comparable to that of Austria-Hungary. The comparison might be extended; for on ethnographical, linguistic and physical grounds, the geographical unit now treated is just as homogeneous in composition as the Dual Monarchy. It is only in the political sense and by force of the ruling classes, temporarily united in one monarch, that the term Osterreichisch could be used to include the Poles of Galicia, the Czechs of Bohemia and Moravia, the Szeklers, Saxons and more numerous Rumanians of Transylvania, the Croats, Slovenes and Italians of "Illyria," with the Magyars of the Hungarian plain.
The term Punjabi much more nearly, but still imperfectly, covers the people of the Panjab, the North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir and the associated smaller Native States. The Sikh, Muhammadan and Hindu Jats, the Kashmiris and the Rajputs all belong to the tall, fair, leptorrhine Indo-Aryan main stock of the area, merging on the west and south-west into the Biluch and Pathan Turko-Iranian, and fringed in the