The part which has suffered most is the rich submontane tract east of the Chenab, Lahore and Gujranwala, and some of the south-eastern districts. A glance at the map will show how large the loss of population has been there. It is by no means entirely due to plague. The submontane districts were almost over-populated, and many of their people have emigrated as colonists, tenants, and labourers to the waste tracts brought under cultivation by the excavation of the Lower Chenab and Jhelam canals. The districts which have received very marked additions of population from this cause are Jhang (21 p.c), Shahpur (30 p.c), and Lyallpur (45 p.c). Deaths from plague have greatly increased the deficiency of females, which has always been a noteworthy feature. In 1911 the proportion had very nearly fallen to four females for every five males.
Increase and Incidence in N.W.F. Province.— The incidence of the population in the area covered by the five districts of the N.W.F. Province is 164 per square mile. The district figures are given in the map in the margin. The increase between 1901 and 1911 in these districts was *j p.c. There have been no severe outbreaks of plague like those which have decimated the population of some of the Panjab districts. General figures for the territory of the Maharaja of Kashmir are meaningless. In the huge Indus vallev the incidence is only 4 persons per sq. mile. In Jammu and Kashmir it is 138. The map taken from the Census