a large element in the population. In the east they are Hindus, in the centre Sikhs and Muhammadans, and in the west Muhammadans. The Jat is a typical son of the soil, strong and sturdy, hardworking and brave, a fine soldier and an excellent farmer, but slow-witted and grasping. The Sikh Jat finds an honourable outlet for his overflowing energy in the army and in the service of the Crown beyond the bounds of India. When he misses that he sometimes takes to dacoity. Unfortunately he is often given to strong drink, and, when his passions or his greed are aroused, can be exceedingly brutal. Jat in the Western Panjab is applied to a large number of tribes, whose ethnical affinities are somewhat dubious.
Rajputs.— Rajputs are found in considerable numbers all over the province except in a few of the western and south-western districts. As farmers they are much hampered by caste rules which forbid the employment of their women in the fields, and the prohibition of widow remarriage is a severe handicap. They are generally classed as poor cultivators, and this is usually, but by no means universally, a true description. The Dogra
Rajputs.- of the low hills are good soldiers. They are numerous in Kangra and in the Jammu province of Kashmir.
Brahmans.— The Brahmans of the eastern plains and north-eastern hills are mostly griculturists, and the Mutual Brahman of the north-western districts is a landowner and a soldier. In the hills the Brahman is often a shopkeeper. The priestly Brahman is found everywhere, but his spiritual authority has always been far less in the Panjab than in most parts of India.
Biluches.'— When the frontier was separated off the Biluch district of Dera Ghazi Khan with its strong tribal organization under chiefs or tumanddrs was left in the Panjab. The Biluches are a frank, manly, truthful