EXPORTS AND IMPORTS
Trade.— In 1911-12 the exports from the Panjab, excluding those by land to Central Asia, Ladakh, and Afghanistan, were valued at Rs. 27,63,21,000 (£18,421,000), of which 61 p.c. went to Karachi and about 10 p.c. to Calcutta and Bombay. Of the total 27 p.c. consisted of wheat, nearly the whole of which was dispatched to Karachi. All other grains and pulses were about equal in value to the wheat. "Gram and other pulses" (18 p.c. of total exports) was the chief item. Raw cotton accounts for 15, and oil-seeds for 10 p.c. The imports amounted in value to Rs. 30,01,28,000 (£20,008,000), little more than one-third being received from Karachi. Cotton piece goods (Foreign 22, Indian 8* p.c.) make up onethird of the total. The other important figures are sugar 12, and metals 11 p.c. The land trade with Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Ladakh is insignificant, but interesting as furnishing an example of modes of transport which have endured for many centuries, and of the pursuit of gain often under appalling physical difficulties.