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Page:Provincial geographies of India (Volume 1).djvu/192

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HISTORY— THE MUHAMMADAN

discord and weakness between Peshawar and Delhi. Babar, a descendant of Timur, ruled a little kingdom there. In 15 19 he advanced as far as Bhera. Five years later his troops burned the Lahore bazar, and sacked Dipalpur. The next winter saw Babar back again, and this time Delhi was his goal. On the 21st of April, 1526, a great battle at Panipat again decided the fate of India, and Babar entered Delhi in triumph.

Akbar and his successors.— He soon bequeathed his Indian kingdom to his son Humayun, who lost it, but recovered it shortly before his death by defeating Sikandar Sur at Sirhind. In 1556 Akbar succeeded at the age of 13, and in the same year Bahram Khan won for his master a great battle at Panipat and seated the Moghals firmly on the throne. For the next century and a half, till their power declined after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, Kabul and Delhi were under one rule, and the Panjab was held in a strong grasp. When it was disturbed the cause was rebellions of undutiful sons of the reigning Emperor, struggles between rival heirs on the Emperor's death, or attempts to check the growing power of the Sikh Gurus. The empire was divided into subahs, and the area described in this book embraced subahs Lahore and Multan, and parts of subahs Delhi and Kabul. Kashmir and the trans-Indus tract were included in the last.

The Sultans of Kashmir.— The Hindu rule in Kashmir had broken down by the middle of the twelfth century. A long line of Musalman Sultans followed. Two notable names emerge in the end of the fourteenth and the first half of the fifteenth century, Sikandar, the "Idol-breaker," who destroyed most of the Hindu temples and converted his people to Islam, and his wise and tolerant successor, Zain-ul-abidin. Akbar conquered Kashmir in 1587.

Moghal Royal Progresses to Kashmir.- His successors often moved from Delhi by Lahore, Bhimbar, and the Pir