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36 LoN L. Swift CHAPTER II. Topography. Oregon is nearly an exact parallelogram, being in extent approximately 275 miles from north to south and 350 miles from east to west. The Cascade mountains running parallel with the coast about no miles inland, divide the State into Eastern and Western Oregon, which differ greatly in cli- mate, elevation, and productivity. The Willamette Valley, the most productive portion of the State, lies between the Cascade mountains and the Coast Range. It is drained by the Willamette River and its tributaries. The rainfall is be- tween 40 and 50 inches annually; but, owing to almost total absence of precipitation during the summer months and to the present methods of farming, the farm output can, doubt- less, be greatly increased by means of proper fertilizing and irrigation. The soil is fertile and farming so diversified that almost every kind of agricultural activity attempted in any country in the latitude of Oregon is pursued. The counties lying in this section of the State are Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas, Yamhill, Marion, Polk, Linn, Benton and Lane. Southwestern Oregon is hilly and mountainous but contains many fertile valleys. This part of the State is especially adapted to the raising of fruit. This section includes, in all, five counties: Douglas, Jackson, Josephine, Curry and Coos. Curry and Coos are on the coast and not well adapted to orchards. The other coast counties are Lincoln, Tillamook and Clatsop. Columbia lies immediately east of Clatsop along the Columbia River, and the two counties have similar cli- matic and agricultural conditions. These counties have a very heavy rainfall and are lined with timbered hills and moun- tains. The principal farming industry is dairying. Eastern Oregon is cut off by the Cascade Mountains from

the rainfall enjoyed by the western part of the State, and con-----