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Page:Quarterlyoforego10oreg 1.djvu/176

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62 LoN L. Swift mountains, very little summer-fallowing is done. Landowners of the Willamette Valley report that no provisions are made in renting land to prevent weeds or to replenish the soil. They appear to be unable to solve the problem of maintaining the efficiency of the farms. The only means used to keep tenants from skinning the land is the stipulations of the lease, but these are, in nearly all cases, wholly inefficient to meet the requirements of good farming, and very often not observed at all. Rotation of crops is almost unheard of unless it be from one kind of grain to another. Summer-fallowing is the only method used in the eastern part of the State, but this is aided somewhat by cultivation of the plowing. Many land- owners say that they believe it impossible to keep tenants from skinning the land. Owners are generally secured in receiving their part of the rent. Grain, when divided at the thresher, is looked after by the owner who is present in person or by agent; when it is delivered at the warehouse, checks are made out to the owner for his portion of the grain. Sometimes the owner has marked sacks and secures his portion at the thresher in this way. Lessors of large wheat farms along the Columbia River often have contracts that give them a lien on the crop till the lessee has completed the year's farming, delivered the grain, and ful- filled all of the agreements. Many lessors do not secure them- selves in any way, but trust to the tenants to fulfill the terms of the contract. Cash rent is often paid in advanceĀ ; when not paid at the beginning of the lease, lessors generally require security in the way of a gilt-edge note or bond. Dairy farms rented for cash may divide the income from milk at the cream- ery so that the lessor receives his amount specified in the leaseĀ ; if rented on shares, then the checks are made out according to the specified ratio to owner and tenant, respectively, at the creamery. New fences and buildings are generally, if not always, con- structed by the owner. The most common rule for keeping

them in repair when farms are rented is that the owner fur-----