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98 LoN L. Swift smaller total area of farm lands than the counties along the Columbia River, and their farm lands, Baker's especially, were more valuable to the acre and evidently given more to diversi- fied farming. The counties of central Oregon had a very small per cent of their farm lands improved and were of low valuation, showing that the principal industry was stock- raising. It is well known that the four large southern coun- ties, Klamath, Lake, Harney, and Malheur, were devoted almost wholly to the raising of stock, and, consequently, we should expect to find a small per cent of their farm lands improved ; but the figures show the contrary. This apparent inconsistency can be reconciled, perhaps, by the fact that in 1900 all of these counties were too far away from railroads and rainfall was too scant to entice grain farmers to this section. The stock men did not extend their fences to secure grazing lands for their herds, but relied on the range. The farm land itself was used mainly for the raising of hay for feed during the winter months. The total area of farm lands being small in these counties is a fact that bears out this idea. Columbia, Clatsop, Tillamook, and Lincoln, the four coun- ties in the northwestern part of the State, were among the smallest in total area of farm lands, and the per cent improved was low. Several counties were lower in valuation than Columbia, Clatsop, and Tillamook. In the southwest. Coos presented much the same appearance as the three in the north- west ; but Curry and Josephine showed a lower valuation, and may be classed with Lincoln. Our study of the farms in relation to their value, number, size, and total and improved area, gives a general knowledge of farming conditions in the different sections and counties of the State. This, however, should be substantiated and made more plain, definite, and exact by a consideration of the production of some of the staple commodities. Live stock, cereals, dairy produce, orchard products, and poultry will be taken up in this connection. A table showing the figures and relative rank of the coun- ties for the value of all domestic animals on farms and ranges, and the number of cattle, horses, sheep, swine, and goats, in

1900, will make a basis for the study of live stock.----